The Philippines during the American Period Prepared by: Marilyn B. Balabag
American Colonization of the Philippines The Spanish-American war which started in Cuba, changed the history of the Philippines. On May 1, 1898, the Americans led by U.S.Navy Admiral George Dewey, in participation of Emilio Aguinaldo, attacked the Spanish Navy in Manila Bay. Faced with defeat, the Philippines was ceded to the United States by Spain in 1898 after a payment of US$ 20 million to Spain in accordance with the "Treaty "Treaty of Paris" Paris" ending the Spanish-American War.
On June 12, 1898, Filipinos led by Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence. This declaration was opposed by the U.S. who had plans of taking over the colony. And this led to a guerrilla war against the Americans.
The Philippine-American War (1898 - 1946) Hostilities broke out on February 4, 1899, after two American privates on patrol killed three Filipino soldiers in San Juan, Juan, a Manila suburb.This incident sparked the PhilippineAmerican War, War, which would cost far more money and took far more lives than the Spanish–American War. War. Some 126,000 American soldiers would be committed to the conflict; 4,234 Americans died, as did 16,000
Filipino soldiers who were part of a nationwide guerrilla movement of indeterminate numbers. At least 34,000 Filipinos lost their lives as a direct result of the war, and as many as 200,000 may have died as a result of the cholera epidemic at the war's end. Atrocities were committed by both sides.
Aguinaldo dissolved the regular army in November 1899 and ordered the establishment of decentralized guerrilla commands in each of several military zones. The revolution was effectively ended with the capture (1901) of Aguinaldo by Gen. Frederick Funston at Palanan, Isabela on March 23, 1901 and was brought to Manila.
Free trade, established by an act of 1909, was expanded in 1913. Influenced of the uselessness of further resistance, he swore allegiance to the United States and issued a proclamation calling on his compatriots to lay down their arms, officially bringing an end to the war. However, sporadic insurgent resistance continued in various parts of the Philippines, especially in the Muslim south, until 1913.
Civil government was established by the Americans in 1901, with William Howard Taft as the first American Governor-General of the Philippines. English was declared the official language. Six hundred American teachers were imported aboard the USS Thomas. Also, the Catholic Church was disestablished, and a substantial amount of church land was purchased and redistributed. Some measures of Filipino selfrule were allowed, however. An elected Filipino legislature was established in 1907.
Consequences of the American colonial rule During the Spanish period the Spaniards had given enormous land properties to the Catholic church. One of the first things the Americans did was to take care for the redistribution of these land properties. To do so they first had to pay an amount of US $7.2 million to the Vatican in 1904. The small farmers or tenants didn't get any land however. The land became property of some some large landowners. Most of the small farmers couldn't pay the asked price or couldn't prove that they were the former owners of the land.
William Howard Taft addressing the audience at the Philippine Assembly. Assembly.
The Road Towards Philippine Independence 1. Jones Law- the law was approved by President Woodrow Wilson after it was proposed by William Atkinson Jones, an American congressman. The law stated the right of the Filipinos to attain freedom in the near future. 2. Tydings-McDuffie Act-This law was proposed by Millard Tydings and congressman John McDuffie of the US. It stated the 10-year preparation preparation for the Philippine independence through a commonwealth commonwealth government. government.
In 1916, the Philippine Autonomy Act, widely known as the Jones Law , was passed by the U.S. Congress. The law which served as the new organic act (or constitution) for the Philippines, stated in its preamble that the ultimate independence of the Philippines would be American policy, subject to the establishment of a stable government. The law placed executive power in the Governor General of the Philippines, appointed by the President of the United States, but established a bicameral Philippine Legislature to replace the
elected Philippine Assembly (lower house) and appointive Philippine Commission (upper house) previously in place. The Filipino House of Representatives would be purely elected, while the new Philippine Senate would have the majority of its members elected by senatorial district with senators representing non-Christian areas appointed by the Governor-General.
In 1934, the United States Congress, having originally passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act as a Philippine Independence Act over President Hoover's refusal, only to have the law rejected by the Philippine legislature, finally passed a new Philippine Independence Act, popularly known as the Tydings-McDuffie Tydings-McDuffie Act. The law provided for the granting of Philippine independence by 1946.
The Commonwealth Government The Hare-Hawes Cutting Act, passed by Congress in 1932, provided for complete independence independence of the islands in 1945 after 10 years of self-government under U.S. supervision. The bill had been drawn up with the aid of a commission from the Philippines, but Manuel L. Quezon, the leader of the leading Nationalist party, opposed it, partially because of its threat of
American tariffs against Philippine products but principally because of the provisions leaving naval bases in U.S. hands. Under his influence, the Philippine legislature rejected the bill. The Tydings-McDuffie Independence Act (1934) closely looks like the Hare-Hawes Cutting Act, but struck the provisions for American bases and carried a promise of further study to correct “imperfections or inequalities.”
On May 14, 1935, an election to fill the newly created office of President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was won by Manuel L. Quezon (Nacionalista Party) and a Filipino government was formed on the basis of principles apparently similar to the US Constitution. When Quezon was inaugurated on Nov. 15, 1935, the Commonwealth was formally established in 1935, featured a very strong executive, a unicameral National Assembly, and a Supreme Court composed entirely of Filipinos for the first time since 1901.
Manuel Luis Quezon
With Pres. Roosevelt
Babtism of Aurora
The new government embarked on an ambitious agenda of establishing the basis for national defense, greater control over the economy, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the colonization of the island of Mindanao, and the promotion of local capital and industrialization. The Commonwealth however, was also faced with agrarian unrest, an uncertain diplomatic and military situation in South East Asia, and uncertainty about the level of United States commitment commitment to the future Republic of the Philippines.
1898 political cartoon showing U.S. President McKinley with a native child. Here, returning r eturning the Philippines to Spain is compared to throwing the child off a cliff.
Changes in Philippine Culture during the American Period GovernmentDemocracy was the greatest legacy the Americans gave us. The government has three branches: executive (president), legislative (senate and congress) and the judiciary (department of justice).
Education Schools were built all over the country and making English as a medium of instructions i nstructions.. The first teachers were called Thomasites because they came on board the SS Thomas. The University of the Philippines, Philippine Normal College and other agricultural schools were established.
Changes in Philippine Culture during the American Period Religion Protestantism was introduced. In 1918, more or less than 300,00 Filipinos became protestant. The church an the state (government) were separated. Freedom of religion was practiced.
Changes in Philippine Culture during the American Period Transportation and Communication was improved. Americans built roads, streets and bridges for efficient movement of products and services. Examples: Burnham Park, Kennon Road, Camp John Hay etc.
Changes in Philippine Culture during the American Period Entertainment- Music and dance Hollywood movies became popular in the country. New kinds of music and dance were introduced like rock n roll, boogie, jazz, tango, chacha, polka, and rhumba. Filipinos learned to watch and play games like table tennis, basketball, volleyball, boxing, and football.
The Filipinos learned the value of cleanliness and healthy practices. They were taught proper hygiene to make them healthy and be free from contagious diseases. Hospitals, clinics, and health centers were built. Public hospitals for leper victims were also established.
Health and Sanitation
Changes in Philippine Culture during the American Period
Mode of Dressing was changed. The women learned to wear dresses, high-heeled shoes and hand bags. While the men wore suits, polo shirts, ties and jeans.
Changes in Philippine Culture during the American Period Food like ice cream, cakes, beef steak, hotdog, hamburgers, sandwiches, cookies, and donuts were introduced. American architecture are still present today. Up, PNU, Manila Hotel and PGH are some examples. Boulevards, Boulevards, zone districts, streets, centers of leisure were also built.
Changes in Philippine Culture during the American Period
Livelihood The Philippine economy was also improved due to increase agricultural production and development of new industries.
Changes in Philippine Culture during the American Period The Filiino attitude was gradually changed. We learned to be frank, humorous, belief in rights and freedom, and love for sports. “Pagmamano” was replaced by kissing the cheeks of parents and elders as a sign of respect.
The English language was widely taught all over the country. Soon, some english words became part of our vocabulary. Filipinos adopted American names like Charlie, Anna, Francis, and Cherry.
The Negative Impact of the American Colonization Americanization Americanization of the Filipinos- buying of imported products instead of local ones. 2. Colonial mentality- Filipinos lost selfconfidence confidence and believed that Filipinos could not compete with the products of other countries. As a result, Filipino culture was neglected. 3. Filipino values like “pagmamano” was replaced by saying hi or hello. 4. Filipino food like bibingka and suman were replaced by American food like hotdog and French fries. 1.
Quezon, the first Philippine president
The Philippines was controlled by the Americans from 1900-1942. In 1934 an act was established, which made it possible that the Philippines could have a "Commonwealth "Commonwealth of the Philippines". The first president of this Commonwealth was Manuel Quezon. The first president was given certain power for some internal affairs.
The son of Confederate Quartermaster General Abraham C. Myers, J.T. Myers (known as "Jack" or jokingly, "Handsome Jack," to his friends) was born on January 29, 1871, in Wiesbaden, Germany. He graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1892 and was appointed an Assistant Engineer two years later. In March 1895 he was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the United States Marines Corps. The city of Fort Myers, Florida was originally named for J.T. Myers' Grandfather.
James Robert Beveridge
Laura Bullivant aka Laura Lee aka Laurette Bullivant had a successful stage career and married the actor Dwight Frye, who is best known for his roles in the 1931 horror movies, Dracula (Renfield) and Frankenstein (Fritz).
Camp John Hay 1901
Kennon Road 1910
Kenno Road at present
Teachers’ Camp 1910
First Movie Ever Shot (U.S.A.) - Monkeyshines No. 1 (1889 or 1890) First Home Movie Ever Made - Roundhay Garden Scene (1888)
Early movie history is surrounded in the mists of time, as different competitors developed movie technology simultaneously. However, the Roundhay Garden Scene is thought to be the oldest surviving film on record. The Roundhay Garden Scene was directed by the French inventor, Louis Le Prince and features some members of Le Prince's family playfully walking around a garden. The film lasts about two seconds.