Carib Studies Module 2 Notes Ah bad man we name – A.L.L.
Expected Learning Outcomes 1. Analysis of the Concepts of Development 2. Grasp of the interrelationships among the different approaches to development (human, economic, sustainable) 3. Grasp of the different indicators of development 4. Grasp of the different factors that promote and hinder development 5. Evaluation of how development has been influenced by political, social, cultural, environmental and technological factors
Concepts of Development
• Development has been understood to have 3 different interpretations:
1. Development as an enactment of human values: This concept essentially says for anything to develop, improvement must be based on some values which are being implemented. For example one may argue that for an economy to develop there must be an implementation of values which raise the standard of living 2. Development as increasing differentiation or complexity: This concept essentially means that for anything to develop it must become more complex and differentiated where the component parts will interrelate with deeper linkages. Pretty self explanatory. 3. Development as liberation or human freedom: This states that for people to be developed there must be an accompanied growth in autonomy, the options they can pursue and the selfefficacy (the significance of their actions). For example people see education and its ability to empower people to rise in their societies
Approaches to development • There are three main approaches to development: 1. Economic Development 2. Human Development 3. Sustainable Development
Economic Development • The specific goal of development in the decolonization era was economic development through economic growth • This referred to ‘an increase in the value of goods and services produced by a country within a specific time period’ • It was expected that the problems of poverty and backwardness would be solved once Caribbean countries experienced improvements in economic growth
Economic Growth Indicators • There were various indicators measure this ‘development’ however they only measured accurately economic growth. • These included: 1. Gross National Product (GNP): Value of goods and services from a country plus any foreign revenue. GNP per capita is = GNP ÷ population. 2. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The total market value of the goods and services of a country in a given year. GDP per capita = GDP ÷ population 3. Population Growth Rate: calculated by considering birth and death rates and migration statistics therefore if one has a smaller population then GDP & GNP per Capita should rise 4. Age dependency ratio: the ratio of people under 15 and over 65 (dependents) to the working age population (those between 15-64). The theory is if there are more working aged people to take care of dependents the government would spend less taking care of them.
Economic Development (Cont’d)
• The traditional emphasis was to implement measures which solely increased production while limiting population growth • This formed the basis of economic policies in the Caribbean from the 60’s to the 80’s and these ethnocentric approaches modelled in a uniform way not addressing the problems faced by citizens. • While production did increase to some extent the citizen has by large part not benefitted from this growth. • Economic development has evolved since then to focus not only on economic growth on welfare of the people and poverty reduction
Economic Development Indicators
• The economic and non economic indicators of development are collectively used to assess the level of development among countries. • Some Economic Indicators of Development include: • • • • • •
Levels of Industrialization Employment Levels Economic structures (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Industries) The Levels of local and foreign debt Levels of foreign aid receipts National Resource Accounting – How natural resources are depleted to drive productivity
• Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): – Assesses the impacts of inflation, shortages and dislocation of the economy
Human Development • The Human Development Paradigm (HDP) in the 90’s brought together ideas from economic development and sustainable development to find a more holistic way of describing development but putting humans at the centre. • The HDP has three basic views 1. That people are the end means of development: so if our quality of life increases we observe development 2. That development is largely about broadening people’s choices so they’ll have more opportunities to improve themselves in ways that’ll make them happy and bring income 3. That poverty and income inequality are the major problems in human societies which prevent good quality of life
Human Development • Therefore human development as envisaged by the HDP includes improving the quality of life of people through the four areas of: empowerment, equity, productivity and sustainability • The notion comes not from ethnocentric views as empowerment i.e. broadening human choices differ considerably among countries. In one country it may be through education, another may be through opening crown lands
Sustainable Development • A concept of advancing a people’s quality of life, through both economic growth and development and human without compromising future generations and their capacity to meet their own needs. • In this type of development if human development needs are compromised imporvents will be unsustainable • So yeah all types of development are connected here
Sustainable Development • If equity is compromised so will the environment be. In severely unequal places like Haiti where daily survival is more of priority than the well being of future generations the environment will be exploited i.e. cutting of forests which lead to soil erosion • Hence measures must be implemented to reduce inequality and poverty. • Big companies often exploit the environments to make a profit like destroying forests, overfishing and polluting. • Therefore measures to increase the empowerment of citizens to raise issues against the interests of big business is critical to ensue sustainability.
Sustainable Development • Equity: – Refers to the commitment on the part of the people and government of a country to enable all social groups to access the opportunities that the country offers and be fair to all groups as they grasp these opportunities
• Productivity (Based on equity) – Refers to an understanding that if people have equal access to educational and job opportunities then their productivity will probably increase. So if one has adequate job qualifications they probably won’t be in a dead end job where there is no challenge.
Sustainable Development • Empowerment (Based on equity) – Refers to the degree to which individuals have a feeling of self-efficacy, meaning that they have a knowledge that they are capable of doing things to improve their lives. If people have equal opportunities to be productive citizens they’ll probably be happy and will have a high esteem making them make broad decisions in their best interest
Non Economic indicators of Development • • • • • • • • •
Life Expectancy Levels of Education Ratio of Doctors to the Population Labour Productivity Distribution of Income Improved institutions and attitudes Urbanization Birth and Death Rates A nationally coordinated system of policy measures
Indicators and examples of them associated with the paradigm
A nationally coordinated system of policy measures
National Sustainable Development Plan
Empowerm ent Productivity
Improved institutions and attitudes
Increase in Literacy Levels Gender Equity at the workplace
GDP per Capita GNP per Capita Increase in modern knowledge
Energy efficiency Internet Usage
Levels of income Child malnutrition Social and Economic Equalization
Factors that influence development: Political Ideologies • These are systems of belief about governance and power that reflect the needs and aspirations of particular social groups ex. Capitalism, communism and socialism. Capitalism is the prevailing ideology in the Caribbean. • During the post colonial era since the emphasis was economic growth under Capitalism and yet poverty was still a problem some believed to increase the way of life of the people alternative ideologies should be implemented.
Factors that influence development: Political Ideologies • These people were influenced by the Dependency theorists of Latin America who stated that the colonial condition encouraged dependency, underdevelopment and poverty through an imbalance in the trading relationships and the indoctrination of the superiority of the mother country. • So the attempt was to focus on decreasing poverty rather than on economic growth which came into direct contravention with the moneyed classes which ruled at the time.
Factors that influence development: Political Ideologies • Ideologies can foster fragmentation and makes countries vulnerable to external interference in domestic affairs of the countries e.g. Cuba and also limits the extent to which countries are able to forge a coordinated foreign policy. On the other hand the region has been able to maintain stable and democratic governments, which have provided opportunities for economic stability and favourable investment climate • The Marxist type revolutions which took place in Cuba (1959) and Grenada (1979) and the attempts to establish such principles in Guyana (1960’s & 1970’s) were focused on increasing human development through increasing Equality. • Cuba’s economy became centrally planned, with the state owning all productive enterprises and property. The population gained in exchange goods and services at cheap prices, free health care and housing. However productivity decreased due to corruption.
Factors that influence development: Social Factors • These include poverty and inequality (distribution of wealth and stagnant mobility) • Distribution of wealth and resources can either hinder or promote development. • Caribbean society has always been one characterized by social stratification where the elites owned the capital, the middle owned some property while the lower classes only had their labour to sell.
Factors that influence development: Social Factors • If wealth is unevenly distributed then this can hinder development. When concentrated in the hands of a few it can lead to low level of investment, high unemployment, high level of unskilled labour force as there is low expenditure on education. It can also result in corruption. As a consequence there is low productivity among highincome earners, capital flight and brain drain. It leaves government with a high borrowing from international sources, which results in higher taxation rate and rising inflation. To solve this, incentives for production have to be offered to attract investors and government has to increase its involvement in areas such as infrastructure! development, education, minimum wage, high tax on luxury items, harsh penalties for offenders, better auditing and accountability.
Factors that influence development: Social Factors • Most countries of the Caribbean ex. Jamaica display an inequitable distribution of wealth. In Jamaica it is skewed in favour of the ruling class, which consists of large landowning families, local capitalists, international capitalist and a small number of strategically placed professional managers. These classes of people in Jamaica control the commanding heights of the economy (in 1970s less than 1% of the population controlled 70% of the wealth in the economy. Majority of the wealth concentrated in the hands of 21 families
Factors that influence development: Social Factors Changing class boundaries • If within society there are no avenues or scope for social mobility then this can lead to antagonism as people will see themselves as inferior as or less important than those who occupy higher status. A rigid class structure breeds insecurity/ mistrust and this can have a negative impact on development. Some avenue for upward social mobility must exist to reward people who are industrious, visionary and productive
Factors that influence development: Economic Factors • These factors dictate how limited resources are used to satisfy needs and unlimited wants • Since resources are limited it is essential to allocate them in the most efficient way possible for the benefit of most people. • Resources can be divided into Land, Labour, Capital and visionary Leadership. • Leadership ensures stability and is what will envision for the future what’s needed and have that available when the time comes.
Factors that influence development: Economic Factors • So factors are: – The maximum use of resources – Efficient usage of time, money and energy – Reducing the effects of external events (war, crime)
• A country can increase resources this through – Discovery of natural resources – Increasing foreign investments – Expanding the skilled labour force – Technological Advances
• When these resources are properly allocated – Goods and services in the local market will become more competitive – Economic benefits will accrue, facilitating higher employment – Social benefits will accrue increasing employment also and when this increased revenue is well spent human development will increase
Factors that influence development: Technological Factors • These relate to the use of mechanical and electric instruments to solve practical problem of production • When used properly there can be increases in: – Management Effectiveness and Performance Efficiency – Organized functions and intelligent workforce – New products and services
• However competition from outside forces can reduce the demand in traditional goods and actually reduce development and growth
Environmental Factors • These relate directly to nature but indirectly to economics because we need raw materials as well as land to dump our waste. • If the environment is sustainably taken care of the carrying capacity of the land can increase leading to boosts in the productive sectors (primary, secondary and tertiary industries) as well as through tourism
Contextualising Development: Globalization and Regionalism • Expected Learning Outcomes – Define Globalisation – Compare Globalisation and Internationalisation – Present a critique of the work of organizations that attempt to facilitate globalisation. – Assess the ways in which Globalisation affects development in the region – Describe the evolution of the integration movement in the Caribbean – Explain the ways in which the integration movement has affected development in the region
Defining Globalization • Globalization : the process whereby ‘flows of trade, finance and information between countries are broadened and deepened so that they function as one global market’, as if they had no borders. • For example a Singapore University in Jamaica would have the same privileges in Jamaica as in Singapore.
Defining Globalization • Globalization has been derived by the ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) sector in recent times • For example the internet exists without borders to some extent (except VEVO). • This is the logical meaning of globalization where when applied to trade, finance or communication where a commodity is available to all everywhere, as if the nation state didn’t exist. For example The universality of Cell Phone usage
Defining Globalization • A truly globalized world only exists when there is a ‘level playing field for all’ where everyone can benefit from trade in technology. • For example Cell phones in the Sahara to the Caribbean are used touching all income groups and backgrounds • Information access has been able to allow ordinary citizens to access the prices globally of produce and services to challenge old monopolies
Defining Globalization • Monopolies are therefore no longer as profitable as they were so there is a question as to how Capitalist Organizations can function in a globalized world • Globalization is therefore a process which erodes distinctions between various places removing advantages that certain groups enjoy • Globalization produces in knowledge an area where all parts of the world are able disseminate their own cultural knowledge
Defining Internationalization • Internationalization is a more accurate term to describe world now concerning the institution of the World Bank or IMF in finance or trade. • Internationalization of flows in trade, capital and finance refers to increasing interactions among the countries of world as their markets become more integrated and as their
Defining Internationalization • Internationalization is more accurate because it recognizes the nation-state. It conceives interactions between nations and conceives the nations not as equal. • There is no deepening or broadening of linkages in capital, trade and finance as is the case for globalization • Since there is a distinction which needs to be addressed between internationalization and globalization
• This is a business organization/corporation /enterprise that has its headquarters (parent company) in one country (usually advanced capitalist/industrialized countries) and has branches/subsidiaries/franchises and plants in many countries. • They seek out the best profit opportunities and are largely unconcerned with issues such as poverty, inequality and unemployment alleviation. Such organizations carry out substantial amounts of financing, production sales research and development in their foreign operations. They have great economic power (large capital base such as cash, stocks bonds and technology). • They are usually based on manufacturing or mineral industries (extractive and primary industries) and
• They then train workers in foreign plants to use these skills. Some MNCs grant foreign companies licenses to use their methods and processes instead of setting up plants of their own. A MNC may have fewer plants in one country that produces complete products to be sold in several countries while in other cases the plants in many countries may produce components or parts of the finished products. This gives MNCs a larger area from which to choose the most economical locations for specialized plants. The companies can then sell products at lower prices than would otherwise be possible. • Plants imply that there are countries outside the 1 st World Area that can produce parts and components of the finished product. • While trade and technology individually and collectively are facilitators of globalization, they are driven primarily by the functions and operations of the TNOs. The presence of TNOs in the Caribbean increased with ‘industrialization by invitation’.
Purpose of MNC/TNC • These are set up to take advantage of the lower cost of foreign labour and material. • To avoid to pay tariffs and taxes on imported goods. • Obtain control over the supply of resources. • Eg of TNC in the Caribbean are: Scotia Bank, Digicel, LIME, KFC, Burger King, Nestle, Pepsico
Reason why MNC / TNC invest in 3 rd World Countries • Cheap labour • Tax holiday • Freedom to repatriate profits
Challenges that the 3rd World Countries go through • If the developing countries refuse to meet the demand of the TNO, they in turn complain to there home country who will apply pressure to the countries. Eg. withholding foreign aid, withholding loans and terminating of contracts • Exploit natural resources • Poses a threat to local industries
Benefits of the TNO to the developing countries • Provides jobs • Introduce new technologies to improve production • Diverse business practices • Improve standard of living (social benefits such as scholarships and health facilities) • Earn foreign exchange
Technology (Media & Telecommunication) • Technological globalization impacts on all aspects of life on the planet. It is through technology and communication that the world ‘shrank’ in the global village. • Technology allows information to be transmitted in real time via the Internet, telephone, television and radio. This means that information or communication is been carried out 24hrs a day and you can view the events happening in other countries at the same time. • Mobile communication and the Internet have irrevocably changed human relations both negatively and positively. • Exposure of the World Wide Web on the communication industry, along with mobile technology, is responsible for the speed at which globalization has been facilitated. Developing countries in the Caribbean are web integrated in the 3G/4G world of technology. • This means that real time video stream can be done on phones.
Critiquing Globalization and Internationalization processes • This section seeks to analyse the process of internationalization of markets not only the economic dimensions of impacts but the cultural and political responses as well. • Developmental agencies such as the World Bank have used this process as a path to development for use by developing countries • Internationalization occurs between unequal partners i.e. superpowers, TNC’s, industrialized countries, developing countries and poorer ones. There is no ‘super government’ to administer so in many cases richer countries take advantage of the process more than others
Critiquing Globalization and Internationalization processes • The processes are illustrated below 1. Expansion of Free Trade: Trade liberalization requires countries to remove tariffs placed on imports to protect their own industries. Calls to do so when ignored can lead to restrictions from lager free trade areas 2. Measures to tighten efficiency: Increases output while educing costs leading to increased mechanization and some times laying off workers. This is done to increase competitiveness in industrial counties looking to take advantage of trade liberalization with low production costs. 3. The persistence of tariffs: This often subsidises production costs in developed countries to remain competitive i.e. flooding foreign markets (protectionism) while maintaining their own. 4. Market integration: Integration of trade markets between developing and developed countries increasing the volume of trade in recent times. Opening markets to capital flow has always been seen as the main way of increasing
Critiquing Globalization and Internationalization processes 6. Dominance of TNC’s: These firms operate as large internationally integrated production systems with for example, headquarters in Europe but Factories in Guyana and Mines in Trinidad. They are driven more by the profit motive than the needs of the country and its people often generating little employment due to high modernization and capital focus 7. Homogenization of Institutions: Multilateral Organizations such as the World Bank and the IMF lend money to assist the internationalization of markets as a key factor of development. They coerce governments to accept recommendations regarding Capital and finance. As a result these countries have similar institutions.
Multilateral Agencies • These are agencies or institutions where many members are able to participate on even footing, dedicated to achieving certain goals and have devised procedures for all to follow in pursuit of these goals and has devised procedures for all to follow in pursuit of these goals ex. The World Bank, IMF, WTO • All these had a genesis after WWII and were formed after a special UN meeting at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire in 1945 and are known as ‘Bretton Woods Institutions’. The goal was to ensure economic development of all countries to prevent recurrences of catastrophes like the World Wars and the Great Depression.
The World Bank • This was established after WWII and initially called the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). It has its HQ in Washington DC and has 187 member countries. • Countries which fund the World Bank are Western Europe, North America and the rich oil countries. • The Presidents are customarily US nationals • The Bank is involved in providing Capital for projects to promote development. • It once had sole focus on economic growth but switched to poverty reduction based on the new definitions of development
The World Bank • Long term focus is to promote equity and productivity in education, health and industry. The bank makes loans conditional to improve aspects of social life which go against freedom, equity and human rights. • The bank has been accused of ‘western imperialism’ as it endorses internationalization of markets through trade liberalization policies giving impetus for richer countries to profit from developing free market trade. • The Bank has also been accused of US biased market liberalization. As the Bank supports TNC’s in oil & other sectors which have been shown not to decrease poverty • The World Bank today focuses its activities on developing countries and privileges to developed ones but has helped to boost economic growth in some countries but has gained less from where human development is concerned
The World Bank • In its early years it was to help in financing the reconstruction of world war affected countries. • Nowadays its main role is to channel capital from the rich countries to the poor and developing countries. • Otley et al quotes “While IMF is a last resource for many countries especially for shock and emergency, the World Bank is more available to generally help with poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Low interest and no interest loans and grants are used primarily for the structural and capital development of: education, health, infrastructure, public sector restructuring and natural resources management, among other development needs.”
Benefits of the World Bank • Low interest • Poverty alleviation • Financial and technical services
The IMF • As a Bretton Woods Institution the International Monetary Fund (IMF) works closely with the World Bank having the same membership and HQ but instead having a customary European president. They balance each other via the Washington Consensus • The IMF focuses on fostering global monetary cooperation and ensuring financial stability worldwide extending loans and technical assistance to expand trade and help countries balance payments and be stable fiscally. Reducing debt is likely to boost economic growth. Globally the IMF is responsible for overseeing the entire international financial system
The IMF • IMF industries are based solely on austerity and are the same for all developing countries including: 1. Keeping interest rates high to balance currency 2. Devalue the currency to boost exports 3. Reducing Government spending in non-productive sectors (health and education) 4. Privatization of state owned enterprises
• These austerity measures (structural adjustment policies) had to be agreed upon by the respective governments before giving assistance. Implementation of SAP’s has resulted in widespread unemployment before giving assistance, and increased poverty while simultaneously ensuring a profit to the debtor nations in ALL CASES.
• The World Trade Organization was formed in 1995 with the demise of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Its HQ is in Geneva (Switzerland) and has 148 members. It not only regulates trade in goods like GATT but services in telecommunication and banking. It is more modern than the IMF or World Bank and clearly speaks of Globalization • Its function is to remove all barriers or encumbrances of any kind to trade within the world. Its activities have the potential to facilitate globalization in its logical sense • The WTO is the only international body established to oversee the rules of international trade and to make rules there has to widespread consensus which is far more advanced than the Bretton Woods institutions however there are accusations of subverting the democratic process.
Main Functions of WTO • Administrating WTO trade agreements • Handling trade disputes • Providing technical assistance and training for developing countries.
The WTO • The US, TNC’s, Japan and the EU are said to exert undue pressure on developing countries in the decision making process • Recently WTO meetings all over the world have been met with protests, demonstrations and criticisms. Talks have even broken down as consensus becomes even more difficult and developing countries refuse to accept some decisions. • Here we see when developed countries are faced with the prospect of globalization they back down in favour of internationalization of ‘fair trade’ where they only benefit.
EPA (Economic Partnership Agreement) • This is a preferred trade agreement between countries and facilitate free trade. • In 2008, members of CARICOM signed an EPA with the European Union (EU)
Benefits of EPA • Free flow of goods • Exemption from high taxes and quota limits would be higher • Opens up market beyond WTO especially in service sectors such as entertainment industries.
Impact and Response to Globalization The impact that globalization has on the Caribbean is characterised by the small size of Caribbean States, the region’s financial dependency on the industrialised world and its history of fragmentation both as insula island states and historic and cultural fragmentation of colonial powers.
• Industry and Commerce (see info on WTO, IMF & EPA) - Industrialisation by invitation facilitated the development of infrastructure and created jobs for thousands in the Caribbean countries.
Impact and Response to Globalization
• Distributional Sector (eg. supermarkets and department stores) - For commerce to compete, the distribution and retail centre must satisfy the demand for foreign goods while competing with the giants of commerce (foreign consumer products have become more dominant than locally made goods)
Impact and Response to Globalization
- As labour is a major factor of production, it is one of the first elements to be affected by Globalization and the last to benefit from any short term and long term fix. - Modernization and public sector reform or a response to globalization; private sector downsizing, cooperate mergers and buy outs have all contributed to massive lay offs. - The economies of the Caribbean have not been able to buffer unemployment and the results have been migration. - One approach the governments have taken is to give scholarships and bonds students to work in the region. - Gives incentives to UWI students who work in public sectors.
Impact and Response to Globalization • Technology (read on your own) • Ideology and Popular Movements - Giving the varied and complex impact that globalization has on individual countries, economic, social and environmental processes, the responses have come from varied groups within society. - Globalization heralded the growth of movements within ‘civil’ society; social groups that represent the interests and issues of people, especially those at risk. (eg. NGOs (Non Government Organizations – social movement that is legally constituted for the purpose of carrying out social functions primarily through advocacy), Caribbean Association for Feminist Research and Action (CAFRA), Women’s Action for New Direction (WAND), Environmental and Social Justice (ESJ), Jamaica For Justice (JFJ).
The Context of Development • Caribbean Exports have decreased for a variety of reasons including: – The removal of trade preferences – The underselling of local products by cheaper foreign goods and services – The closure of both large and small firms who cannot compete with the technological efficiencies of foreign manufacturers
• This means that the context of (unbalanced) development for Caribbean countries has been one of spiralling debt and decreasing productivity and output due to reliance on ‘free trade ideologies’
Regional Integration • The Caribbean is divided among European languages and traditions and any form of regional integration was relatively unthinkable until 1994 and the formation of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). • The English speaking Caribbean with their similarities have long founded different associations including: The West Indies Federation, CARIFTA and CARICOM. At the Sub regional level the Organization of Eastern Caribbean states were formed.
Regionalism and Globalization • Under systems of increasing globalization smaller nation states have found it more advantageous to integrate some parts of their operations so that they can better deal with the threat posed by the free market ideology. • In the Caribbean we tried political integration using the federation model, which was not successful then began anew via CARIFTA. This was aimed at using the freemarket ideas to reap benefits through functional cooperation of trade. • This limited amount of cooperation led Caribbean countries to seek deeper associations, especially in the free market, as a strategy for development endorsed by world bodies. This effort was CARICOM
The West Indies Federation (WIF)
• This was an early attempt at developing a political union among the British Territories except: Guyana, Belize, the Bahamas and the Virgin Islands. • Members of the WIF are: Antigua, Barbados, British Guiana, Dominica, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, Anguilla, St. Vincent, St. Lucia and Trinidad and Tobago. • A federation is group of self governing territories which are states or nations in their own right but the overarching authority for all of them is under a centralized federal government.
The West Indies Federation • The West Indian Federation came into being January 1958 following Montego Bay Conference in 1947 and subsequent meetings in 1953, 1956, 1957. • Legislatures of all British colonies in region, except Bahamas, met and a regional economic committee • Committees were set up to investigate means of achieving economic unity. A Standing Closer association Committee was also set up to devise a federal constitution. Final agreement was reached in 1957 where Imperial government retained responsibility for defence, external affairs and financial stability. There would be a senate of 19 nominated members and a House of Representative of 45 elected members. There would be a Governor General, Prime Minister and 10 ministers. The federal seat of government would be in Trinidad. Elections were held in March 1958 with the West Indies Federal Labour Party (WIFLP) supported by N.W. Manley, Eric Williams and Grantley Adams defeating the Democratic Labour Party (DLP) supported by Bustamante and Gomes WIFLP 26 to 19 seats. This integration step was mainly a political one but lasted only four years
The West Indies Federation • This was due to Eric Williams of Trinidad and his refusal to accept unrestricted freedom of movement into his territory and Alexander Bustamante’s referendum in 1961 to come out of the federation – which he won.
The West Indies Federation The Federal government was headed by an Executive Governor-General, appointed by Britain and included: • A Prime Minister, elected from among and by the members of the House of Representatives • A Cabinet, comprising the Prime Minister and ten other elected Members chosen by him.
The West Indies Federation • A Council of State presided over by the Governor General. The Council included the Prime Minister and Members of the Cabinet as well as three senators and three civil servants. The senators and civil servants were chosen by the Governor General. (The Council of State was the principal policy (decision)making body at the start of the Federation. In 1960 Britain agreed to abolish this Council and allow the Cabinet to take over the powers of the Council) • A forty five-member House of Representatives, with Members elected from among the Territories; and • A nineteen-member Senate, nominated by the Governor General following consultation with the Prime Minister
The West Indies Federation • The Governor General was Lord Hailes of Britain and the Prime Minister was Sir Grantley Adams, (Premier of Barbados). The Federal capital was located in Trinidad and Tobago. • During its brief existence (1958-62), a number of fundamental issues were debated with a view to strengthening the Federation. Among these were direct taxation by the Federal Government, Central planning for development, Establishment of a Regional Customs Union and Reform of the Federal Constitution. The issue of direct taxation was particularly controversial. The Federation was not permitted to levy (impose) income tax for at least the first five years of its life. Added to this, were the greatly differing positions among the Territories with respect to how other federal taxes should be levied.
The West Indies Federation • In addition, the Federation began quickly to seek to establish federal institutions and supporting structures. It created a federal civil service; established the West Indies Shipping Service (in 1962) to operate two multipurpose ships - the Federal Maple and the Federal Palm - donated to it by the Government of Canada. It had embarked also on negotiations to acquire the subsidiary of the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), namely British West Indies Airways (BWIA). • Cooperation in tertiary education was consolidated and expanded during this period. The then University College of the West Indies (UCWI), which was established in 1948 with one campus at Mona, Jamaica, opened its second campus at St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, in 1960.
The West Indies Federation • The Federation however faced several problems. These included: the governance and administrative structures imposed by the British; disagreements among the territories over policies, particularly with respect to taxation and central planning; an unwillingness on the part of most Territorial Governments to give up power to the Federal Government; and the location of the Federal Capital.
The West Indies Federation • The decisive development, which led to the demise of the Federation was the withdrawal of Jamaica - the largest member - after conducting a national referendum in 1961 on its continued participation in the arrangement. The results of the referendum showed majority support in favour of withdrawing from the Federation. This was to lead to a movement within Jamaica for national independence from Britain. It also led to the now famous statement of Dr Eric Williams, the then Premier of Trinidad and Tobago that, one from ten leaves nought, referring to the withdrawal of Jamaica and signifying and justifying his decision to withdraw Trinidad and Tobago from the Federal arrangement a short while later.
The West Indies Federation • • • • • • • • • • • • •
The Federation collapsed in January 1962. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To strengthen the movement for self government To promote economic development To safeguard the democratic system of government vis a vis dictatorship and communism ACHIEVEMENTS Federation facilitated the movement from colonialism to independence through a united voice The coming together of small states strengthened their effectiveness in dealing with international bodies such as the United Nations REASONS FOR FAILURE The masses were not educated on the importance of Federation Communication among the islands including shipping, telephone and postal services was inefficient Envy and jealously among member states from their varying levels of economic prosperity Distrust by the smaller states of the larger members (Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica) proposal to prematurely change the constitution of the Federation
CARIFTA (1956 – 1973) • The Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) was founded by Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Guyana, and Trinidad and Tobago on 15 December 1965, with the signing of the Dickenson Bay Agreement (the Agreement establishing the Caribbean Free Trade Association). They were joined on 1 July, 1968 by Dominica, Grenada, St Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, Saint Lucia and St Vincent and the Grenadines; and on 1 August, 1968 by Montserrat and Jamaica. In 1971 Belize (then British Honduras) joined the Association. • These Caribbean countries had recently become independent, and CARIFTA was intended to unite their economies and to give them a joint presence on the international scene.
CARIFTA Specifically, CARIFTA was intended to encourage balanced development of the Region by: • increasing trade - buying and selling more goods among the Member States • diversifying trade - expanding the variety of goods and services available for trade • liberalising trade - removing tariffs and quotas on goods produced and traded within the area • ensuring fair competition - setting up rules for all members to follow to protect the smaller enterprises
CARIFTA In addition to providing for free trade, the Agreement sought to: • ensure that the benefits of free trade were equitably distributed • promote industrial development in the LDCs • promote the development of the coconut industry (through an Oils and Fats Agreement) which was significant in many of the LDCs • rationalise agricultural production but in the interim, facilitate the marketing of selected agricultural products of particular interest to the LDCs (through the Agricultural Marketing Protocol); • provide a longer period to phase out customs duty on certain products which were more important for the revenue of the LDCs
CARIFTA • In 1972, Commonwealth Caribbean leaders at the Seventh Heads of Government Conference decided to transform the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) into a Common Market and establish the Caribbean Community, of which the Common Market would be an integral part. • The signing of the Treaty establishing the Caribbean Community, Chaguaramas, 4th July 1973, was a defining moment in the history of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Although a free-trade area had been established, CARIFTA did not provide for the free movement of labour and capital, or the coordination of agricultural, industrial and foreign policies.
CARIFTA The objectives of the Community, identified in Article 6 of the Revised Treaty, are: • To improve standards of living and work; • The full employment of labour and other factors of production; • Accelerated, coordinated and sustained economic development and convergence; • Expansion of trade and economic relations with third States; enhanced levels of international competitiveness; • Organization for increased production and productivity; • Achievement of a greater measure of economic leverage and effectiveness of Member States in dealing with third States, groups of States and entities of any description and the enhanced coordination of Member States’ foreign and foreign economic policies and enhanced functional co-operation. In 1973, CARIFTA became the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).
CARICOM • CARICOM came into being with the signing of the Treaty of Chaguaramas signed on July 4, 1973 by Jamaica. Trinidad, Barbados and Guyana. It began operation on 1st August. Presently membership includes CARIFTA members as well as Haiti and Suriname.
Main objectives • improvement in economic development through trade liberalization (removal of trade barriers) • functional cooperation in areas such as health, education, culture, broadcasting, transrx meteorological services, technical assistance, disaster management • Common policies in dealing with non member states and transnational companies. Benefits: • services offered by various institutions • economic strength as resources are pooled, • better negotiations with trading partners, • larger market for individual states, • stronger persuasive voice in global matters, • stronger Caribbean identity and better appreciation of cultures, • benefits of talents of individual member states, • establishment of CCJ as well as CSME
CARICOM • Failures: • competition among member states in air transport, • WISCO plagued by problems • ideals of common currency and passport still not achieved
OECS • The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) came into being on June 18th 1981, when seven Eastern Caribbean countries signed a treaty agreeing to cooperate with each other and promote unity and solidarity among the Members. The Treaty became known as the Treaty of Basseterre, so named in honour of the capital city of St. Kitts and Nevis where it was signed. • The basis of the organization was that following the collapse of the West Indies Federation, and prior to the signing of the Treaty of Basseterre, two caretaker bodies were created: the "West Indies Associated States Council of Ministers (WISA) in 1966 and the Eastern Caribbean Common Market (ECCM) in 1968
OECS The OECS is now a nine member grouping comprising: • Antigua and Barbuda • Dominica • Grenada • Montserrat • St. Kitts and Nevis • St. Lucia • St. Vincent and the Grenadines • British Virgin Islands • Anguilla
OECS • The mission is to be a major regional institution contributing to the sustainable development of the OECS Member States by assisting them to maximize the benefits from their collective space, by facilitating their intelligent integration with the global economy; by contributing to policy and program formulation and execution in respect of regional and international issues, and by facilitation of bilateral and multilateral co-operation.
OECS Objectives: • To promote development by the formation of a common market among member states • To deal more effectively with international bodies by forming a common foreign policy • To assist each other in defending and maintaining political independence OECS member states have a common Eastern Caribbean Currency, they all belong to the Lesser Antilles, they are all small, independent states, share common strategies for development, a common Central Bank, a common High Court and a Joint Stock exchange.
Association of Caribbean States • The ACS was established in 1994 among 25 Member States, 3 Associate States and 14 countries with observer states – together comprising of a population of 237 million people and form the world’s fourth largest trading block • The primary aim in setting up this wider Caribbean body was to promote economic cooperation and to encourage a coordinated approach to issues of importance to all the countries in the region – trade, tourism, transportation, health, science etc. It is often the case that issues of prudence transcend national borders and even of regional entities like CARICOM and demand a wider range of cooperation.
Association of Caribbean States Objectives: The ACS was inaugurated on July 02, 1995 with its administrative office in POS, Trinidad. The main objectives of the Association relate to cooperation, discussion and action leading to the sustainable development of the entire Caribbean region. These include: • Incorporating the collective human and physical resources of the Caribbean for economic, social, cultural and technological advancement • Maximizing the potential of the Caribbean Sea by working with member states and other organizations • To encourage increased trade and investment opportunities through cooperation • To provide new and improved measures to promote the cultural identities of its members.
Regional Security System (RSS) • This institution was formed as a collective regional response to security threats impacting on the political stability of the region in the 1970s and 80s. It comprises of small islands. Military and police personnel of the member territories are at the disposal of the country should need arise. The agreement enables the members to pool scarce man power, resources and equipment.
Regional Security System (RSS) Achievements • 1983 – during this time the US led invasion of Grenada and other Caribbean islands came together and decided to join the USA armed forces. • 1989 – Hurricane Hugo hit the eastern Caribbean islands and coast guards from RSS rushed to help them.
Regional Security System (RSS) Challenges • The headquarters is in Barbados which passes a challenge in reaching out to other Caribbean states. • It is very costly to maintain because of the constant training
Sports, Leisure and Recreation • Sport has been side-lined in the national dialogue about development simply because it has not been recognized as an activity that includes everyone in the society. The perceptions of sport have traditionally tended to confine it to the world of professional athletes and competitive events. Even in schools that view tends to be dominant. Today, as discussions about the development, these narrow ideas about the contribution of sport to national development, sport, leisure and recreation are all related and represent an avenue for people in a country to increase equity, productivity and empowerment in their lives.
Generation of Income Sport, income and the mass media • To a large extent profitability of sport is dependent on its link with information and communications technologies (ICTs).
Free Trade Area of the Americas • The FTAA is a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce trade barriers among nation states of the western hemisphere (except Cuba)
Promotion and hindering of integration • FACTORS PROMOTING REGIONAL INTEGRATION – Close proximity to each other through air and sea travel – Shared common history – Shared common culture in terms of dress, language, cuisine, music and general lifestyle – Similar economic, political and social problems (unemployment, few physical resources, lack of adequate capital, poor housing, inadequate health facilities etc.
• FACTORS HINDERING REGIONAL INTEGRATION – Different strategies for economic growth – Territorial interests supercede regional interest – Some concessions to foreign investors run contrary to CARICOM objectives – Stifled regional trade due to similarity in products – Separatism and particularism: until recently distrust, self interest and disunity among Anglophone, francophone and Hispanic nations
Institutions in the Integration Movement: UWI • Established 1948 on the recommendation of the Irvine Commission and was affiliated to London university. The first campus was established at Mona in Jamaica, later expanded with opening of St Augustine (1960) and Cave Hill(1963) campuses. Became known as UWI in 1962 (prior to this it was UCWI). More recently 11 centers have been established in non campus territories. Offers full time, part time and distance education. Funding comes mainly from governments of the region and fees. • UWI takes care of tertiary system of education in the region. It brings regional cooperation through the various courses offered, from certificate to post graduate level to meet the various needs of the English speaking Caribbean. Recently the institution embarked upon an expansion programme as well as programme diversification in order to serve the needs of the region better and thus make a bigger contribution toward economic growth and development
Institutions in the Integration Movement: UWI • UWI faces challenges from – Foreign universities which offer degrees by distance teaching – Off shore universities – individual governments which sec need for a local university – expansion to increase percentage of graduates from 10 - 20% – allowing children of poor to acquire tertiary education while governments insist that students pay a portion of costs
• UWI enhances regional integration and development by – offering a curriculum which is relevant to the needs of the region – producing skilled personnel in business, government and industry > – producing people who are committed to the region ® by developing science and technology – by producing research which contributes to development of private sector – by producing research which helps in solving society's problems – by raising level of innovation and entrepreneurship in the region – breaking down barriers and dispelling ignorance and prejudice of and towards other nationals – forges lasting friendships and family relationships
Institutions in the Integration Movement: CXC • CXC was established inl972 to serve as regional examining body for the secondary education system. Caricom members as well as other English speaking territories have their secondary school graduates examined by CXC on an annual basis. CXC offers secondary level certification, advanced proficiency and associate degrees. It ensures that the education of the Caribbean people is geared towards the needs of the region thus fostering economic development; examination by the region, of the region and for the region; syllabus reflect learning from a Caribbean perspective. • CXC creates employment opportunities: administrators, curriculum officers, measurement expert, content specialist's markers, supervisors, examiners. Through CXC foreign exchange is kept in the region rather than going to England. UWI creates interaction among peoples of the region. Regional integration, av/areness of commonality, sense of brotherhood
Institutions in the Integration Movement: CTO • Caribbean tourism organization CTO • This organization was launched in 1989 with the merger of CTO and CTRC. Its main aim is the development of sustainable tourism in the region (economic and social benefit). This they have done through – tourism marketing – research and information management – human resource development – product development and technical assistance – consultancy services. Achievements of CTO include – annual conference on tourism held in the Caribbean – sponsoring trade shows in Europe – CTO chapters in major markets in Europe and North America – maintain tourism information for the public and private sector – maintain up to date websites where information can be accessed – advertise Caribbean as one destination Challenges – getting governments to become more ware of their need to support tourism – changing the perception of the public so that tourism becomes more acceptable as an economic entity getting a greater share of tourist market – getting local operators to refine their product
Institutions in the Integration Movement: WICB • This was established in 1925 (makes it one of the oldest examples of regional cooperation) to establish and sustain West Indies cricket as the porting symbol of the West Indies as well as to develop and promote WI cricket for the benefit and enjoyment of the West Indies people, clients and other stakeholders. The board controls, regulates and arranges cricket in the region through competitions (under 15, under 19, Seniors, setting up of an academy (St. Georges University in Grenada). It consists of a president, two members from each of Trinidad, Jamaica, Barbados and Guyana and one from the other territories. • Its functions include – selecting a cricket team to represent the region in international competitions – arrange inter territorial matches
Institutions in the Integration Movement: CSME • CSME is a single enlarged economic space created through the removal of restrictions and resulting in the free movement of goods, services, persons (artistes, media workers, university graduates, sportspersons, musicians), capital and technology. It confers the right on CARICOM nationals to establish business in any CARICOM member state and to be treated in the same manner as a national of that state. • The main pillars of CSME are the provision for free movement of capital; free movement of goods, services and people ( use of IDs/other form of identification, CARICOM National line at ports of entry, common passport) within CSME; the establishment of common trade and economic policy; harmonization of economic, fiscal and monetary policies (foreign exchange controls abolished no restrictions on Capital market activity, companies will be able to operate across border); a common currency.
Institutions in the Integration Movement: CSME • Under CSME benefits will include goods being traded in free market conditions, people of approved categories are moving freely, capital is moving, increase inflow of new capital, entrepreneurship and technology, larger market opportunities, greater opportunities for travel, study and work in CARICOM countries, increased employment opportunities and improved standard of living secure platform for entry into FTAA, greater economies of scale-pan Caribbean Brands, strengthened competitiveness, lower consumer prices, creation of regional companies, increased opportunities to invest through direct stock ownership or mutual fund investments • CSME tests our capacity as a region to do what is necessary. Globalization presents harsh reality for small states. The survival of Caribbean hinges on our preparedness to face open international competition and to adapt to technological developments
THEORIZING CARIBBEAN DEVELOPMENT
Expected Learning Outcomes 1. Explain what is meant by an ideology 2. Describe the Values underlying the following ideologies: pan-Africanism, negritude, Marxism, Feminism, Capitalism, Indo-Caribbean and Indigenous Perspectives 3. Identify the key thinkers in these intellectual traditions 4. Analyse the Impact of each of these ideologies
Ideology • This is a fairly coherent and comprehensive set of ideas that explains and evaluates social conditions, helps people understand their place in society and provides a program for social and political actions • Each ideology must be interpreted based on our experiences within colonialism, exploitation, ethnocentrism and nationalism • Main ones include: Pan-Africanism, negritude, Capitalism, Marxism, Indo-Caribbean and Indigenous perspectives
Pan-Africanism • This is a specific ideology which states that the survivals of Africa in the diaspora should be studied and active links made to Africa as the motherland • It originated in the 18th century by black people in the US trying to escape slavery to go back to Africa as they believed they were wrongfully kidnapped from their homeland. These ideas eventually developed into Pan-Africanism
Pan-Africanism • Under Henry Sylvester Williams in 1900 the first Pan Africa Conference in London took place. The main objectives were • • • • •
To promote the universal link black people all share To raise black consciousness about Africa Freeing Africa from political and economic contrl from Europe Repatriation of Blacks to Africa Seeking unification of the Continent
• Individuals from the Caribbean significant to the movement included: Marcus Garvey, Cybil Briggs, Claude McKay, George Padmore and C.L.R. James
Marcus Garvey (he’s the only one I’m studying still) • Born in St. Ann, Jamaica in 1887 • Had to leave school early to work and became involved in printing, the newspaper business and politics • He established the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) in 1914. • It was formed in Jamaica to improve the lot of the poor, i.e. Black People • He migrated to the US and the UNIA chapter he formed there blossomed and eventually became the HQ of the movement • He founded other institutions up in the US like the African Communities League (ACL) and the Universal African Black Cross Nurses to address the needs of the Black Underclass. • His Black Star Line was an ambitious project to transport people and goods to Africa and was a symbol of black commercial success. • Through his newspapers – the Negro World, the Blackman and the New Jamaican he attempted to raise the consciousness of Black people and to preach about the freedom of African countries which were under colonial rule, and the Unification of Africa.
Marcus Garvey (he’s the only one I’m studying still)
• His ideas and message came at a time when the US and Caribbean were at hardship especially among the poor. • His public appearances always proclaimed pride in the African race and emphasised that Black people should see God in their own image • This stance was heard by those marginalized in white-dominated Capitalist society • In 1930 this message was also taken up by the Rastafari who translated his words to mean the existence of a black god. The statements he made like a king will come out of Africa and the prominence he gave to Haile Selassie’s coronation convinced them that the Rastafari movement should declare Selassie as ‘King of Kings and Lord of Lords’ • His advocacy for repatriation was also taken up wholeheartedly by the Rastafari movement • Garvey is a national hero of Jamaica and lives on through music, and in the inspiration he gave to budding politicians, trade union leaders, the civil rights movement and the decolonization movement of the Caribbean and Africa based on nationalism
Pan Africanism in the British Caribbean • In the interwar years between 1918-1939 there was growing discontent of colonial control. The newspapers of Garvey found their way to all Caribbean countries and influenced the formation of UNIA chapters all over including Cuba, Trinidad and Jamaica. • In the 1930’s there were widespread riots and the growth of trade unions. The dispossessed were enchanted by the rhetoric of the black empowerment they read in Garvey’s newpapers
Pan Africanism in the British Caribbean • The hatred they felt merged into a struggle for the downfall of colonialism and a growing consciousness of Black Unity and black nationalism. • The first Rastafari were very much influenced by Garvey who fused the black nationalist message from the Bible with a prophecy that ‘princes shall come out of Ethiopia’. They revered Garvey like a second John the Baptist since Haile Selassie was proclaimed emperor of Ethiopia • In this period there was a surge of nationalist sentiment which coincided with the return of Caribbean soldiers from WWI. They had a broader experience of the politics as they suffered discrimination under the hands of British soldiers. This Pan-African rhetoric deepened the decolonization movement.
Pan Africanism in the British Caribbean • This all came to a head when in 1935 Italy attempted to annex Ethiopia, causing Selassie’s exile. This was seen as a naked act of aggression by many Caribbean people. Where Trinidadian workers refused to unload the docks of some Italian ships and where some Caribbean men attempted to enlist in the Ethiopian Army
Pan African Sentiment • These again swept up in the late 1960’s and 1970’s with the messages of Malcolm X and Stokley Carmichael on Black Power. This again coincided with a period of economic downturn. • The industrialisation by invitation policies werent working out for the newly independent Caribbean countries with rabid unemployment • Black power analysts felt that the government and black intelligentsia failed the people. The felt British colonial overlords were merely replaced by a black elite with ethnocentric ideas • This movement had long lasting consequences for the Caribbean as a lecturer at UWI Mona and Black Power Activist, Walter Rodney was prevented by authorities from returning to Jamaica to teach in 1968. Students at the Campus led a mass protest where 3 died and unrest spread to other campuses. The unrest spread to Trinidad’s St. Augustine where the National Joint Action Committee (NJAC) a black empowerment organization started essentially a revolution joined by indian sugar workers, the unemployed and trade unions culminating in 1970 in the mutiny of the Army and a state of emergency
Pan African Sentiment • There were similar incidents in the Grenada with the National Jewel Movement took over the government in 1979
Negritude • This is a unique brand of Pan-Africanism which originated in the 60’s in French colonies calling for all people of African Origin to celebrate their blackness and didn’t recognize geographical or regional distinctions • The main thinkers were Frantz Fanon and Aime Cesaire – Martiniquans, Leon Damas of French Guiana and Leopold Senghor who later became the head of state of Senegal • The movement began in Paris where members published a journal providing a forum to express sentiments regarding the French policy of total assimilation of its colonies and the side lining of African culture and the impossibility of independence there.
Negritude • Negritude mainly focused on black consciousness and black bride because as these activists saw it – living in a context where French culture and civilization was expressed threatened the core of black identity. • In Martinique and Guadeloupe small Marxist groups sought to mobilize people to overthrow the French with no success. • Aime Cesaire resigned from the French Communist Party on the grounds that a race struggle was different from a class struggle. • In Pan-Africanism there was an urge to move away from Capitalism so there were experiments with communism but that too was a European ideology.
Negritude • Franz Fanon was a more radical pan africanist. He was a student of Cesaire and worked in France and Algeria as a psychologist experiencing first hand the barbarity of the French police fighting Algerians against their independence • Fanon saw no other way other than the violent overthrow of colonial governments through his documentations of the struggle in the books The Wretched of the Earth and Black Skin
Economic Perspectives: Industrialization by Invitation • Sir Arthur Lewis is a St. Lucian, distinguished economist, Vice Chancellor of the University of the West Indies (UWI) and Nobel Prize Winner for his strategies to improve economic growth for his theory later known as ‘Industrialization by Invitation’ • He was influenced by Operation Bootstrap initiated by Puerto Rico in the 30’s & 40’s where cheap available labour would be used as an incentive to attract multinational companies to establish industries alongside tax free concessions. • The result was that Peurto Rico became industrialized with mixed success.
Economic Perspectives: Industrialization by Invitation • Lewis’ theory was only based on the context that the British West Indies with our mainly agricultural base needed to stimulate industrial growth • Lewis reasoned that what we had in great abundance was unskilled labour due to our monocrop economies and among the unemployed and we didn’t have much capital so in the short term we could invite MNC’s with money to set up operations here – earn large profits by employing the cheap labour, subsidies and tax holidays. In the monocrop industries labour prices would therefore rise as workers would be absorbed into manufacturing • The products would the be distributed by the MNC’s themselves in markets MNC’s commanded so by using MNC’s in this way Caribbean countries wouldn’t need to set up additional infrastructure as we didn’t have any, nether rely on tarrifs.
Economic Perspectives: Industrialization by Invitation • Lewis envisaged through this a jumpstart in economic diversification, higher wages in agriculture and higher wages from the MNC’s as well as the gaining of the knowledge necessary to run our own manufacturing industries once MNC’s left amd rise to emrge out of Colonialism optimistically. • The strategy however failed, as stated by critics due to the fact that we invited the MNC’s but did not control them. MNC’s were provided infrastructure such as warehouses, light, water, etc. and tax breaks and subsidies but when the initial period was up they left with no provision to train citizens added to the fact that these were mainly Capital intensive industries left the region with an overall loss.
Marxism and Neo-Marxism • Marx’s theory saw society as evolving through various stages of economy and the relationships of different groups where the economy and the relationships of different groups within the economy defined the type of society that evolved. • For example early society developed along lines of equal work i.e. egalitarian society then as dominant groups began to subjugate others via slavery a system of social stratification developed. • As the economy developed it became necessary to have workers that had some type of freedom to make decisions and develop skills. This could not could not happen in a slave system so the feudal system had to develop. In each case Marx was able to show that societies underwent change when contradictions or tensions developed in the economy, bringing about changes in the social relations between groups. • This happened in the industrial revolution were society had become organized into workers (with their labour to sell) and capitalists (those who owned the means of production for example capital, banks and businesses)
Marxism and Neo-Marxism • Under this system we saw the capitalist dedicated to extracting maximum labour for the lowest wages and where the workers struggled for better wages and working conditions. • It was inevitable given this state of affairs where the rich grew richer and the poor poorer that action would come from trade unions agitating for more wages and eventually the workers will seek to overthrow that type of society.
Marxism and Neo-Marxism • The next stage Marx described is socialism to bring about a classless society which can only come about when all people share in the means of production • According to Marx only when people see through the false consciousness of socialism can they be socialized i.e. recognize the need for socialism. • Communism was next on this stage of development as stated by Marx that eventually the state will wither away as people see that no group should exploit to form a truly democratic society. • Marx criticised capitalism but saw it as a means through which people would build a communal society hence the appeal of the ideology in the Caribbean as Marxist society could free the disenfranchised from oppression
Marxism and Neo-Marxism • Within the Caribbean Michael Manley, Forbes Burnham, Maurice Bishop were influenced by Marxist/Neo-Marxist ideology and sought to implement policies that would create a just and equal society. (They had attended universities in Europe-England- where they were introduced to Marxist thoughts, had become disillusioned with the capitalist path i economic development, was influenced by the success of Cuban revolution) • Democratic Socialism in Jamaica • Michael Manley came to power in Jamaica in 1972 against background of popular social unrest, widespread call for social reform. Thought was that previous leaders did not do enough to help population who were trampled on by white middle class domination and exploitation. Manley developed commitment to social justice and equality. (Inequalities and inequity he saw through his work as a trade unionist). Manley embarked on nationalization programme with majority shares in the transport sector, electricity and telephone bauxite levy on bauxite companies ( increase revenue) • Legislation was passed to protect vulnerable in society: family Court Act, Maternity leave Act, Minimum wage Act • Co-operate socialism in Guyana • After independence in 1966, Burnham adopted a socialist type of economic development in Guyana. Constitution was amended to retlect cooperative socialism. This type of governance opposed all social economic and political systems, which permitted exploitation of man by man. V/anted to extend socialist democracy to provide citizens with oprx>rtunity to participate in management and decision making process in the country (people participation) Burnham nationalized sugar, bauxite and communication sectors. Government then could redistribute wealth through social programmes (health education). Lack of financial resources made it difficult - had to turn to IMF Socialism in Grenada • In Grenada Maurice Bishop formed the New jewel Movement to rid the country of colonial political thinking (Eric Gairy). Society was doniinated by capitalist system of production Bishop nationalized banks, transportation and media, improved working conditions, health and education. Rejoined with other socialist states such as Cuba (got technical support to build airport and scholarships to study in Cuba). This proved disastrous including heavy debt burden, internal conflict (murdered by members of his movement, invaded by USA
British Capitalism • Capitalism in its simplest terms means free market enterprise. It is a way of organizing the economy whereby the exchange of goods and services is done according to the forces of the market i.e. demand and supply. Modern view is that of free trade. • Under a free trade system government has little say in the distribution of goods and services. The two major ideal of capitalism is privately owned capital and investment and profit making. British capitalism in the New World had one objective profit making (get wealthy). The plantation system of production used African slave labour thereby making huge profits.. .in no time they became wealthy as evidenced by the plantation houses constructed across the region. The large profits accrued allowed them to live opulent lives in the Caribbean as well as Britain.
British Capitalism • According to Walter Rodney (Guyanese) Capitalism was introduced into the Caribbean with the first transshipment of African slaves across the Atlantic. This form of capitalism was one-sided, in short this system was non-negotiable. It was non-negotiable because the Africans had no say in the system and also the fact that the system was forced upon the Africans (How Europe Underdeveloped Africa ,) Intellectuals Eric Williams and CLR James( Trinidadians) in their writings epitomized the thoughts of Caribbean people on British capitalism. • Williams argued that slavery was purely economic and embodied the capitalist ideal of the British. Hence when slavery became unprofitable the British which once embraced this system deemed it savage and uneconomical and abandoned the system (Capitalism and Slavery). While Williams was able to recognize the brutality of the system of slavery he never lost sight of the fact that the system was economical and slavery was just another means to the economic success of the British..
• CLR James in the Black Jacobins points out that the system of slavery and colonialism had to be brutal to ensure that the system of capitalism worked and worked well. The brutality was not only mental but also psychological. The Black West Indian was constantly reminded of his/her blackness and this blackness was closely linked to backwardness and inferiority. Over time blacks in the West Indies came to believe this myth. Once the myth was engrained into their psyche the British was ensured of the success of capitalism. British capitalism only involved the Caribbean to the extent that the position of the Caribbean performed only to the needs of the British government. This forced arrangement was that the Caribbean produced and the British consumed. Whatever benefit was returned to the Caribbean was only done to ensure that capitalism survived to further enrich Britain. • This concept of development is attributed to St. Lucian economist Sir Arthur Lewis (Nobel Prize for Economics). This was based on a concept adopted in Puerto Rico called Operation Bootstrap. This concept became the model on which economies of the English speaking territories within the region were fashioned. Following economic systems such as communal, encomienda, slavery and the plantation system, many economists felt that for the Caribbean to be economically viable there was a need for the economy to be reorganized. After all, despite the many economic systems the region was still experiencing problems of an economic nature.
Feminism • A Feminist is an advocate of woman's rights; anyone who recognizes female oppression and fights for the correction of this oppression. To be feminist is to be calling for equality of the sexes. Part of the feminist agenda is for women and their issues to be on the front burner; on centre stage. It concerns the celebration of women's achievement as for too long the contribution women have made to society has gone unnoticed, unrecorded and unrecognized. The origin of Caribbean feminism is unique due to its long history. Black women of the . Caribbean have been fighting oppression ever since their sale and capture on the west coast of Africa. They were constantly in the quest for freedom. • Women used their bodies to attack the system of slavery- infanticide, and acts of infertility were common. When this was not the option they turned on the master and his property burnt fields, damaged equipment and animals, killed their masters. Under slavery women out of necessity became brutal and militant. In order to survive she had to become a feminist. Following emancipation, women's focus changed. They now had to struggle against the same black men, with whom they were enslaved, for visibility and equality. They had to find new tools with which to fight oppression. The new tools became academics and literature. If their voices are to be heard they had to become qualified like the men or more qualified. The views, issues and concerns became audible through literature. In the literature the women authors dramatized the different problems and complexities facing women they also attempted to deconstruct and reconstruct new ideas about women and femininity. • While doing so the achievements of women are being celebrated eg. Verene Shepherd uses her knowledge of history to refocus attention away from men in history. She has given women a voice and a face in history to women.
Feminism • One of the major inroads into Caribbean feminism has been made by CAFRA (Caribbean Association for Feminist Research and Action). Through this group women are able to explore and celebrate their achievements. It provides a voice for women. • Through the Women and Development Unit (UWI) information about the status of women is made available to government and NGO, which can then be used to guide formulation of policy concerning the welfare of women. These many women's organization have been created to champion the cause; National Organisation of Women (Barbados) Sistren (Jam), CARIWA. These among others highlight role of women in many endeavours such as labour movement, provide a forum for discussion of issues and provide an inspiration for young women and urge governments to implement legislations on women's issues such as rape, sexual harassment
Amerindian Perspectives • Amerindian groups have been targets of European opinions which saw them as a primitive, inferior, barbaric, uncivilized to be eliminated, overworked, enslaved. Caribbean Intellectual perspective seeks to dispel the view that these people did not have a history. (Walter Rodney (History of Guyanese working people); CLR James (Black Jacobins) Hilary Beckles (Black Rebellion in Barbados). There is the need to view the indigenous people not only in terms of the labour they provided (encomienda) but the cultural contribution they have made. (Kalinago resisted Europeans and halted the advance of European settlement, left us architectural styles, foods, craft, farming systems)
Indo-Caribbean Perspectives • Emancipation of slaves led to the introduction of indentured workers from Asia (Indian and China). Indians came in large numbers to Guyana, Trinidad and Cuba and to a much lesser extent Jamaica between in 19m century. Influenced by contractual arrangements and colonialism, they have also produced several writings, which expressed their culture and responses within the Caribbean. In Caribbean they found harsh conditions (refer to indentureship; low wages, withholding of pay, overcrowded dilapidated unsanitary barracks, restricted movements, harsh penalties, poor nutrition, overwork disease. In response Indians protested, went on strikes, riots; others repatriated others cultivated plots practiced thrift and industry, complained to immigration gents, created organizations such as East Indian National Association in Trinidad, staged cultural activities such as Divali, Pbagwa, Hosay. The coming of the East Indians resulted in increase in East Indian population; even exceeding African population in Guyana and Trinidad By 20 th century they have made significant strides: moved from cane fields to education, commerce and health sectors, reversal in trend of illiteracy, higher paying jobs. • Although they have been associated with labour, the East Indians have showed their resilience to achieve economic independence and so have been able to influence the economies of the countries in which they have lived. In addition they have moved into areas of politics especially Trinidad and Guyana ( Jagan, Panday, Jagdeo etc. Intellectual writers who have highlighted Indo- Caribbean thoughts include VSNaipaul ( Nobel prize winner for Literature) and Samuel Selvon