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CAPE Caribbean Studies P1 2017
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Problem Statement To examine the effectiveness of the Ministry of Health (MOH) programmes at addressing sexual practices of teens. Objectives To: Examine the social factors which cause teens to engage in sexual practices at an early
Identify the programmes promoted by the MOH and a nd other organizations that inform teens about sex.
Investigate the extent to which young people are impacted by the programmes outlined by the MOH and other organizations.
Purpose of the study A few teenagers may stray from sexual practices at an early age, however the majority will follow the trend that has already been set, hence the topic Tackling teen sex and pregnancy was chosen to find out how informed teenagers teen agers are about sex and an d if they grasp its consequences.
Background to the problem In our world today, one of the most talked about topics among teenagers is “sex”. Sex is 1
having sexual desires or their manifestations, Thompson (1996). The need for sex is not wrong as we are sexual beings, but it has reached a state where the urge for sex seems to take over adolescents‟ minds and bodies.
Edited by Della Thompson. The Oxford Modern English Dictionary. Oxford University Press 1996. 1
There are many reasons why teens engage e ngage in sexual practices early; thus it is rather necessary that the MOH and other agencies a gencies continue to raise teenagers‟ awareness about safe sex practices and its consequences. Though these organizations aim to bring about and increase awareness, their helpful information is intentionally not used. Nonetheless, I believe it is the parents‟ responsibility to talk and discuss sex, sex, its consequences and the child‟s sex life if he/she is sexually active. Engaging in sexual activities at an early age is not new, however it has reached an epidemic proportion in Jamaica; the country suffers from an ex tremely high increase in birth in birth rates and an even greater escalation of STDs. More actions need to be implemented to reach out to the teens and there needs to be more effective approaches to make safe sex practices stick in their minds. Furthermore, brazenly and clandestinely, teens, are having unprotected sex with adults, this cannot be corrected with only onl y speeches but legal actions need to t o be set to curb these problems. My interest in the topic stems from the numerous articles in newspapers that more persons are contracting STDs and STIs and also the varying age groups of pregnant females I‟ve observed on the streets.
Educational Value This research is primarily written as an informative and educational piece for young and sociable adolescents. Teen sex and pregnancy can adversely affect the current and future generations. In order to prevent or lessen the consequences associated with it, sensible and indepth information must be given to teens; it i t is my hope that this research can ca n achieve this.
Definition of Terms
Teens - shortening for teenagers; a person from 13 -19 years of age.
STD - Sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a term used to describe more than 20 different infections that are transmitted through exchange of semen, blood , and other body fluids or by direct contact with the affected body areas of people with STDs.
STI - abbreviation for sexually transmitted infection; an infectious disease that is transmitted through sexual activity.
Sexual practices - activities associated with sexual intercourse.
Safe sex - doing sexual intercourse with the use of measures, such as latex condoms condo ms to avoid the transmission of STDs and STIs or the use of oral contraceptives to avoid pregnancy.
Unprotected sex - sexual intercourse performed without the use of contraceptives thus involving the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and pregnanc y.
Simpson (2004) internet article states that teenage girls account for a quarter of all the child births in Jamaica. The article shows that there is a low contraceptive usage among Jamaican teens: 66% of all births are unplanned and among women under the age of 20. She also stated that despite a strong Christian upbringing, man y Jamaicans become sexually active as early as age fourteen or younger. Too early sex, according to her, is associated with many factors, such as poverty, absence of male role models, and cultural approval of early child bearing. Other reasons she establishes for teens becoming sexually active include rape, incest and confusion of sex for love. Likewise, Clarke (2001) internet article said that teenagers‟ sexlives are influenced by numerous factors: parents, peers, the media and access to education. However, Clayton (2005) internet article has a rather unique and different view about the factors that are influential to a teen. Her article discusses teens‟ interpretations of "hooking up" and having "friends with benefits". She believes both terms greatly encourage teens to have early and short sex lives with insignificant partners, which will result in numerous successive partners in the long term.
Although strategies have been implemented to decrease early sex, adolescent pregnancy is still prevalent. Therefore more strategies are being researched and initiated. Watson (2011) newspaper article declared that EVE for Life will partner with Th e Gleaner to begin a series, „Diary of Teen Mom‟. The series will generate public discussion about developing innovative programmes to prevent teenage pregnancies and it will assist teenagers who have already given birth to return to school and complete their education. Additionally, in an attempt to gain more ways to tackle teen sex, Blackmore (2008) newspaper article interviewed sex therapist, Dr. 4
Sidney McGill; McGill opinion was that parents play the greatest role in curbing early sex. He argued that instead of parents telling their children whether or not to have sex, they should supervise the friends they keep and they must create open relationships with their children so they will speak freely. White (2007) newspaper article further stated that a partnership between schools and parents can be effective in handling early sex. Schools need the support of parents and communities to be successful in implementing sex education programmes, because sex education begins at home. She further went on to say that sex education in schools should be compulsory because it would ensure that children, parents and community members are exposed to accurate sex education.
Information from the internet showed that there was a common perception that Jamaica offers very few sex education programs for its youth and unless they are taught at home, they don't learn about sex and its positives and negatives. This outlook should be shunned because a variety of educational facilities are available to Jamaican adolescents. For example: the National HIV/STI Programme (NHP) created a website. The website provides multimedia methods of conveying abstinence and safe sex messages, that is, videos are available fo r persons to watch. These videos are also shown on local television stations so as to reach a large audience. Other methods used to communicate safe sex messages include pamphlets, television ads, expos, concerts, billboards, books and posters. Luckily, the NHP does not perform the task alone, other organisations and agencies supporting and assisting to increase awareness are: USAID, Jamaica Adolescent Reproductive Health Project (Youth.now), National AIDS Committee Jamaica, Jamaica Youth Advocacy Network, Ministry of Health, United Nations Children‟s Fund (UNICEF), National Family Planning Board and The Ministry of Education (MOE). Even local artistes are getting involved in helping to promote safe sex. 5
For this research both primary and secondary sources were utilized in order to obtain information.
A primary source is an article or other document written by the actual researcher of a study. The primary source that is a part of this research is the questionnaire; a questionnaire is a formulated series of questions that investigates respondent‟s needs, expectations, perspectives, priorities and preferences.
A secondary source is an article, book or other document written by someone who did not actually do the research or formulate the opinions or theories but who has pulled together relevant sources. The research included secondary sources such as newspaper articles, television advertisements, posters and information from the internet.
Primary Source: The questionnaire contributed both qualitative and quantitative data to the research. It is qualified to give data because it is a research methodology. It is not biased because it was given out to respondents of different age groups, residing communities and gender, also the respondents had freedom to express their views and opinions without force or pressure.
A questionnaire (see appendices) consisting of 12 questions was administered to random persons on the streets in Portmore, Spanish Town and Old Harbour. A random sampling was chosen so that responses could b e obtained from persons residing in different 6
communities. Twenty-eight questionnaires were administered from March 10-12 and respondents completed them instantly „on the spot‟ and returned them. Questions 1-2 solicited respondents‟ demographic information, questions 3-4 aimed to find out the type of protection respondents used during their first sexual experience and at what age group they had their first sexual interaction, question 5 sought to find out the reason(s) respondents began to have sex or their reason(s) for wanting to have sex, questions 6 A) and 6B) aimed to find out if respondents are parents and how many children they have acquired, questions 7-9 extracted respondents knowledge about MOH programmes and their impact on the respondent‟s sex-life, questions 10-11 aimed to find out if the respondent and his/her partner use and discuss contraceptives and question 12 investigated if respondents and their parents spoke about sex.
In this research a questionnaire is appropriate as it has many adv antages; a few are as follows:
It is not time consuming.
It is cost effective when compared to face-to-face interview.
It provides both quantitative and qualitative data.
Secondary Sources: Newspaper articles, television advertisements, posters and information from the internet are also sources in this research.
The newspaper articles retrieved from The Gleaner focused mainly on the measures that could be developed to tackle teen sex and pregnancy. All three articles supplied different strategies to handle the growing problem. The articles are approved of as sources because The Gleaner is a well-known and respected newspaper and its staff comprises of qualified and trained 7
writers and editors. The articles are not biased or p rejudiced, as reporters are required to report news in an unbiased way. The source is credible and reliable since the articles were published for the general public to read.
Television advertisements were a method the MOH u tilized to increase sexual awareness. The advertisements showed scenarios where many teens ma y find themselves and the best solution they could do to resolve the situation. The ads also mentioned organizations working with the MOH that could assist adolescents with problems concerning abstinence and safe and unprotected sex. The television ads are reliable and qualify as a source because it is being aired on a broadcasting network which informs Jamaicans with facts. The source is not biased because the ads are not supplying teens with a particular point of view about sex but giving them helpful advice.
Likewise, postures were a method the MOH used to spread more awareness about safe sex and abstinence. The postures illustrated to teens what life should be at their age and stressed that abstinence is very important. The postures qualify as a source because they were created for educational purposes. The source is reliable and credible because they were given to adolescents, students, adults and posted on light posts and notice boards where teens are normally found hanging out. The source is not biased as they provide advice instead of giving a particular point of view.
The internet supplied a variety of information. The articles retrieved spoke about the many factors that are influential to early sex. Though all three sources agree that numerous factors are contributory to early sex, they list different factors. In addition, the NHP website presented information about programmes the MOH uses to educate teens. The information is reliable and 8
credible since website contents were available for the public to view. If the information was not reputable it would have been blocked by personnel who keep the sites up-to-date. The newspaper articles are relevant for it lists factors that encourage teens to engage in early sex; understanding the social influences can provide significant insight for effective interventions. And the NPH website is relevant because it provides parents with methods they can use to tackle their teens‟ sex-life.
Contraceptives used by teenagers during their first sexual interaction
Figure1 illustrates that 39% of respondents used the male condom, 3% used oral contraceptives, 3% used the female condom, 35% did not use any protection and no one used a diaphragm.
Age at first sexual experience
Figure2 shows that 21% of respondents had sex for the first time at age 10-12, 21% at age 13-15, 37% at age 16-18 and 21% never had sex.
Factors that influence early sex among teenagers
Figure3 depicts that 14% of respondents were influenced by peer pressure, 21% by love, 57% by enjoyment, 3% by intoxication and no one was influenced by money.
Individuals who attended or heard of programmes about Safe Sex Practices and/or Pregnancy Prevention
Figure4 illustrates that 75% of respondents had seen safe sex ads however no one was aware of Safer Sex Week, 21% had heard about and attended the World AIDS Day venue, 29% knew about concerts, 14% knew of the National HIV/STI Programme and 7% did not respond to the question.
The impact of the MOH programmes on teenagers’ sex life
Figure5 shows that the MOH Programmes greatly impacted 36% of respondents, hardly impacted 11%, impacted to an extent 36% and did not impact 14% while 3% did not respond to the question.
The effects of the MOH programmes on teenagers’ sex life
Figure6 depicts that 28% were influenced to abstain from sex, 68% were encouraged to practice safe sex, however no one reduced their sexual activities and 14% were not encouraged at all.
The extent to which parents help their children in understanding sex and its positives and negatives
30% 25% 20% Percentage of respondents
15% 10% 5% 0% Yes
No Yes but to an extent
Figure7 illustrates that 29% of respondents spoke about sex with their parents, while 32% did not talk with their parents and 39% spoke about their sex life but to an extent.
Whether teens discuss the use of contraceptives with their partners
Figure8 shows that 64% of respondents discussed the use of contraceptives with their partners while 29% did not talk with their partners and 7% did not respond to the question.
Young people, sexually active or not, are influenced by a range of factors, „Figure3‟. Nowadays, it is quite outdated to be married before becoming sexually active; hence it is not surprising that more than half of the sample had loss their virginity in order to experience the pleasure sex elicits. Other reasons for having sex include love, peer pressure and intoxication.
Generally, persons are addicted to whatever that elicits pleasure and gives enjoyment. Sex is one such activity. Teenagers, likewise adults, enjoy the pleasures of sex.
Teenage love is questionable. Can they experience love so early or are they in love with lust? According to the questionnaire, love w as the second highest factor (21%) for teens getting involved in sex. Confusion of love and lust is a common issue; normally males intentionally trap susceptible females with this 4 letter word to gain sex. Nonetheless, it is said that love and sex must go hand in hand, however teenagers are more for pleasure and enjoyment instead of love.
Teens that resist engaging in sexual activity tend to have friends who are abstinent while teens who are sexually active tend to believe that most of their friends are sexually active as well. Therefore, peer group attitudes influence the attitudes and behaviours of their friends.
Intoxication refers to being under the influence of drugs or alcohol. These substances suppress psychological inhibitions, which can increase the d esire for sex. With the loss of inhibitions, persons are not timid to do anything, in this case certain sexual favours or even lose one‟s virginity.
It is noteworthy that with little information from their parents, teenagers fall prey to the many factors of early sexual practices.
Although the role of sex educator belongs to parents, the Ministry of Health has embarked on an endeavour to assist parents in informing teens about sex. The MOH promotes safe sex ads, Safer Sex Week (the week before Valentine‟s Day), World AIDS Day (in December), concerts for teens and they work alongside the National HIV/STI Programme. „Figure4‟ shows that the majority of the sample have attended or heard of 2 or more of these programmes and their success in raising awareness is seen in „Figure5‟ where the MOH has somewhat impacted most of the sample. Both figures substantiate that young minds are extremely perceptive to the media, because the sample on a whole was encouraged by the programmes. However, it is contradictory that individuals in the sample are parents, meanin g some teens must have shunned safe sex practices (35% did not use protection at their first sexual experience). Furthermore, the fact that most persons were encouraged to practice safe sex and none reduced their sexual activities implied that they may be sex addicts. And this is troublesome because it is hard to repress sexual feelings and easier to become addicted, if sex is discovered at an early age.
Nonetheless, the majority have been encouraged to specifically abstain because 21% had their virginity intact „Figure2‟ and practice safe sex because„Figure1‟ shows that the male
condom was mainly used by both males and females. This may be an indication that male condoms are more available or even that girls rely on males to protect them. Another reason may be that condoms are the king when it comes to protection because it is the only method that provides protection against both unintended pregnancy and STDs. However it is alarming that 14% were definitely not encouraged by the programmes. This percentage may represent the rebellious and obstinate teens that need individual guidance. Therefore it could be said that the escalating levels of early sex among teens is not due to a lack of education about sex, but by personal choice. In addition, it is disturbing that although many pro grammes are implemented, teen pregnancy rates are drastically increasing. This suggests that teens are deliberately not incorporating the programmes advice in their sex life. Hence, it could be summarized that the MOH has impacted some teens while some may feel they know what is best and make their own decisions without incorporating adult‟s advice.
Teenagers face many challenges as they pass through puberty: they are exposed to explicit media messages about sex, with little or no parenting support. Based on the increase in the number of children having sex early, the increase in teenage pregnancy, as well as HIV/AIDS and STIs, children and teenagers are in need of help!
The decisions teens make about their relationships: abstaining or participating in sex, and protecting themselves and others from STDs and pregnancy is influenced by numerous factors. Simpson (2004) internet article spoke about: Poverty, impoverished communities that lack sufficient employment and educational opportunities are associated with higher sexual risk taking, because individuals use sex as a way of releasing the stress of their life. Absence of male role models, compared to children raised by both biological parents, children who are raised in single mother households exhibit an earlier age of first intercourse. 21
This could be as a result of the child feeling unloved by the father and seeks love from a sexual partner or lack of information from mothers about sex. Cultural approval of early child bearing, women in poor neighbourhoods who have not had a child by their twenties risk being taunted and labelled 'mules' or infertile. Hence, young people are encouraged to start early sex and view early pregnancy as an achievement. Confusion of sex for love, persons often feel in love when they are really only in lust. It is extremely difficult to distinguish between love and lust. Males often fall prey to lust believing it is love, encourages his partner to have sex, then likely falls out of lust. And in some cases females lose their virginities due to a perceived concept of love. On the contrary, Clarke (2001) stated other factors: parents, peers, media and access to information. Parents exert significant influence in their children choices about sex. Poor communication with parents about sex and safe sex practices can cause early sex and risky sexual behaviours. It is necessary that children receive emotional suppo rt from parents because estrangement at home often leads impressionable teens to seek and establish intimate relationships outside the family. The peer group greatly impacts teenagers' decisions about sex, that is, a teen‟s sex life will be similar to the peer group they emulate (if the peer group is sexually active then an individual will do the same). According to the questionnaire, peer pressure was the third highest factor with 14% of respondents. Even more bothering is that adolescents are most likely to get information about sexual health issues from their peers. The images that pervade the media (television, music videos, and the internet) are increasingly more explicit in sexual content. Most television shows contain sexual content with little mention of possible risks of sexual activity, or any reference to protection, or safer sex and
it is quite troubling that young people, who regularly use the internet, are exposed to pornography and sexual solicitations via social sites.
Clayton (2005) also contributed other debatable factors that are influential to early sex. „Hooking up‟ and having „friends with benefits‟ are disturbingly common behaviours among today's teens. Hooking up is having a one-night stand and if the night turns into a series but there is no definite relationship, a friend with benefits has developed. Most teenage sexual encounters no longer occur in the context of a romantic relationship, but in an impersonal, merely sexual „hook up.‟ A result of sex without meaning is sexual addiction, which is, moving from sexual experience to sexual experience without ever being satisfied. Meanwhile, for some teens precocious sexuality represents freedom and maturity. But teens must shun these degrading practices because they cause more harm than benefits.
Although sex is often a challenging issue for both youths and adults to discuss, the consequences of not talking about it can be severe. Teenagers should adequately know about the many factors that exist, so as to prevent being influenced into early sex.
How should teen sex and pregnancy be tackled? Can the growing issue lessen? What are the more effective strategies? These questions have plagued parents, schools, communities, governments… according to information found on various reputable websites, there are many ways to tackle teen sex and pregnancy, the number of cases have fluctuated over the years and although no specific strategies were pin pointed to be more effective, it can be assumed that the intervention of parents played a significant role in the matter. Blackmore (2008) interviewed sex therapist, Dr. McGill; Dr. McGill agrees that parents are the most effective at curbing teen ‟s sexual practices. Many teens go to parents to get sex education but the high probability of 23
awkwardness may cause parents to turn a blind eye. Dr. McGill detests parents‟ nonchalance when it comes to having the sex talk with their kids. They have a right to know about their sexuality and they must learn about it from persons who they trust and who will not misinform them. White (2007) further added that sex education begins at home. Parents should lecture their teens and put great emphasis on abstinence or using protection. White (2007) went on to suggest that parents and schools could work together to be more effective. For some households, especially inner-city ones, this method could be more successful, it would benefit both parents and teens. School educators could show parents the modern sex trends among teens, guide how to begin discussing sex with their kids, help them to understand sex themselves and demonstrate how to be supportive if their teen is facing teen pregnancy. Literature shows that many parents are misinformed about sex themselves and most would agree that they will not take care of a grandchild. With the aid of schools, parents ma y get the appropriate information to pass on and they may become more open-minded to morally and emotionally support their pregnant teen. More importantly though, is the direct impact schools m ay have on teens. The teens are the impressionable ages of an individual and since most of these years are spent at high school; teens will more than likely decide their sexual preferences there. Hence, high schools can have a great impact on a teen‟s sex-life; it may not be for all but some teens will be affected by the continual lecturing of abstinence and safe sex. If they hear it at home and it is backed by schools, it will likely stick in their minds.
It is contradictory that with so many strategies being researched and implemented teen pregnancy is still one of the most prevalent socio-economic problems. Researchers have discussed the factors influencing early sex in great depth, shared their results in books, internet articles, newspaper articles and many other sources, but teens seem to ignore literary work. With 24
that in mind Watson (2011) announced that EVE for Life would form a partnership with The Gleaner to create a series retelling real life experiences of Jamaican teen moms. Hopefully current teens will read and learn from mistakes instead of evading and experiencing for themselves. In certain situations, it is better to learn from other cases than t o gain first-hand experience. In addition, the partnership will try to return teen moms into schools to complete their education. This is an important point because education brings social mobility and finance to take care of needs. To teen moms, especially the ones without parental support, this is rather necessary because she must provide for herself and her baby‟s needs. Tackling teen sex and pregnancy is not a simple task, that is, researchers have developed and implemented strategies but teens ignore them. The questionnaire revealed that the large percentage that did not use protection resulted in 21% having a child or children. This is troubling with the number of MOH programmes the sample has attended and recognised, „Figure4‟. What more should the MOH do? Quit? No, persevere and insist persistently! Some may shun the MOH messages but the majority or being positively impacted.
Now, the question of whether teens know the benefits and risks of sex arises. There should not be any lack of awareness because numerous public educational programs are readily available to them. In Jamaica, the Ministry of Hea lth plays a major role in advising teens about their sex life. The MOH uses a variety of fascinating methods to bring across their point. Methods include songs by local artistes, videos, comic strips, postures, billboards, real life confessions, concerts and expos.
The MOH also works alongside other organisations to bring across their point: USAID, Jamaica Adolescent Reproductive Health Project (Youth.now), National AIDS Committee
Jamaica, Jamaica Youth Advocacy Network, the National HIV/STI Programme (NHP), and the Ministry of Education. All organisations have contributed in spreading awa reness about safe sex practices, abstinence and STDs and STIs because most of the sample was somewhat impacted by the MOH programmes, and this is what they seek to achieve.
Jamaica uses its Ministry of Health programmes to tackle the teen sex and pregnancy crisis and their main aim is to inform teens about sex and its consequences. It was proven that a variety of factors contribute to early sex and the most effective prevention is parental intervention. Furthermore, investigations indicated that teens are very aware o f safe sex methods available however their use must be minimal due to the teen parents revealed by the questionnaire. The MOH therefore has an arduous task in curbing teenage sex practices. Nonetheless, the MOH continues to develop prevention programmes. The NHP, one of the more popular programmes caused teens to practice abstinence and safe sex. However a small percentage deliberately ignored the programme‟s messages. Hence, it can be concluded that the MOH programmes have impacted some teens‟ sex-life.
The research used secondary information from the internet due to its availability.
However, there are disadvantages to obtaining sec ondary information from the internet: data integrity can be lost due to an alteration of the data published. 26
Respondents may not have comprehensively understood questions. Respondents may not have answered questionnaires truthfully due to the personal nature
of the questions. Respondents, ages18-19 far outnumbered other age groups. The study therefore needed
more perspective from other age groups. Since the researcher is a teenager, she ma y have discussed the findings and literature in
favour of teens instead of in an unbiased way.
Safe sex ads should advice teens to get information if they do not know about sex and list places that can assist them.
Early, steady dating should be discouraged. Instead, guardians should encourage
friendships and going out in group activities. Programmes that provide parents with current facts about sex experimentation among
schoolchildren should be created. Parents, especially from inner-city areas should make their teens future attractive b y
teaching them that whatever they want is attainable.
Parents must talk about sex with their children.
Lectures that speak explicitly about sexual interaction must be compulsory in schools. Teenagers should be empowered to resist peer p ressure to become sexually active and use
drugs and alcohol. Survey parents and communities to get their views on sex and ask for their input to
improve programmes. Resources and referral information about sex are to be available for youths and families
in the community.
Teens should be shown videos of child birth.
Parents should show their children love and attention so as to prevent them from seeking
it elsewhere. Parents must discuss porn and other sexually graphic materials with their k ids.
Prevention Programmes - Special Events. Retrieved from the 23
Shelia Clark (2001). Parents, Peers, and Pressures: Identifying the Influences on rd
Responsible Sexual Decision-Making. Retrieved from the 23 February, 2012. http://www.naswdc.org/practice/adolescent_health/ah0202.asp Heather Little-White. Compulsory sex education in schools, published on S eptember 9,
2007 in the Jamaica Gleaner. rd
Trudy Simpson (2004). Teenage pregnancy in Jamaica. Retrieved from the 23 February,
Farlex. The Free Dictionary. Retrieved from the 1 7 April, 2012.
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/sexual+practice Patricia Watson. Teenage Pregnancy – A Public – Health Issue In Jamaica, published on
November 23, 2011 in the Jamaica Gleaner.
Keisha Shakespeare-Blackmore. The emotional trauma of early teen sex, published on
January 7, 2008 in the Jamaica Gleaner. Heather Little-White. Compulsory Sex Education In Schools? pu blished on September
12, 2010 in the Jamaica Gleaner. Victoria Clayton (2005). Tackling the topic of teen sex: Regardless of whether your kids th
are doing it, they need parental guidance. Retrieved from the 17 April, 2012. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5344844/ns/health-childrens_health/t/tackling-topic-teensex/#.T43rk6uufps
QUESTIONNAIRE This survey is being carried out to find out how informed teenagers are a bout sex and whether they grasp the consequences associated with sex. I am kindly requesting your assistance in answering these questions honestly. Since your name is not required your answers will remain confidential. Instruction: Tick ( ) the answers that best represents you. 1.
What age group are you? 12-13
What protection did you use the first time you had sex? Male Condom
Never had sex
What age group were you when you began to have sex? 10-12
What was your reason for having sex/ what is your reason f or wanting to have sex? Peer Pressure
Intoxicated (under the influence of alcohol, drugs)
(a) Are you a parent? Yes
(b) How many children have you had? 1
3 or more
The Ministry of Health works with many agencies to bring about their point of sexual awareness. Which of the following have you ever at tended, heard about or seen? Safe Sex ADS (advertisements on television & charts) World AIDS Day
Safer Sex Week
Concerts for teenagers
National HIV/STI Programme
How have these programmes impacted on the choices you make about your sex life? Greatly impacted
Impacted to an extent
Not at all impacted
What do these programs encourage you to do? Abstain from sex
Practice safe sex
None of the above
Reduce sexual activities
10. Are your sexaul interactions with your partner planned? Always
11. Do you and your partner discuss the use of protection/ contraceptives? Yes
12. Do your parents help you in understanding sex and all its negatives and positives? Yes
Yes, to an extent
Banners and Flyers used over the period 2006-2009 to increase public awareness of HIV & STI and to educate about the use of condoms and other safe sex measures.