Summary of Principles in Language Teaching
2. Role of the teacher/studen t
3. Teaching/ Learning Process?
4. Nature of student/teache r interaction
5. How are students’ feelings dealt with? 6. View of language/ culture?
7. What language skills are emphasized?
Provided by Dr. Bill Flick, Director of ESL at Auburn GrammarAudio-Lingual Direct Method Silent Way Way Suggestopedia Translation Method Read literature Communication. Communication. SelfEveryday in L2. Develop Think in L2. Automaticity by expression of Comm. Tap Ss mind. Learn Direct Ss; mental powers grammar, association in learning new independence by desuggesting vocabulary, and L2 without habits. from T. barriers to culture. translation. learning. Traditional. T T-centered. T-centered. T T as S must trust and is the authority. T directs. provides model facilitator, respect T as Ss learn from of L2 for resource, authority. Ss the T. imitation. provides what adopt childlike Ss need. roles once they feel secure. Translation. Associate L2 New grammar Ss guided to Relaxing Deductive and meaning and vocabulary discover the atmosphere, study of directly in real through structure of music, activate grammar. context. dialogues. L2. Initial whole brain + Memorize Use L2 only. Drills. focus on peripheral vocabulary. Inductive Inductive accurate learning. grammar. grammar. pronunciation Reception then Syllabus based Learning is . activation phase. on topics/ habit formation. situations. T to S. Both initiate T-directed. T active, but T/S and S/S interaction. S/S in drills. mostly silent. interaction from Some S/S S/S beginning. interaction. interaction encouraged. N.A. N.A. N.A. Positive Focus on feelings confidence and encouraged, sense of security also S/S via suggestions. cooperation. Literary Spoken Language as Language Communication language over language over system of expresses the as a 2-phase spoken written. patterns/units. spirit of a process: language. Simple to culture. language + complex. extra- linguistic factors. Vocabulary/ Vocabulary over Structure Pronunciation Vocabulary. grammar. grammar. important. & intonation. Explicit but Reading/writin Focus on Listen-speakStructure. minimal g. communication. readOral before grammar. write. written. Language use over linguistic form.
8. Role of the native language?
L1 in classroom. Two-way translation.
9. How does evaluation occur?
Written Use of language translations. (interview). Apply grammar rules.
Discrete point testing for accuracy.
10. Treatment of errors?
T supplies correct answer.
Self Self-c -cor orre rect ctio ion. n.
Avoi Avoid d erro errors rs by overlearning.
11. Associated with whom?
Francois Gouin, Charles Berlitz
2. Role of the teacher/student?
3. Teaching/ Learning Process
4. Nature of student/teacher interaction?
5. How are students’ feelings dealt with?
Community Language Learning Communication. Promote nondefensive learning.
L1 habits interfere with L2. Avoid L1.
Total Physical Response Communication. Learning L1= learning L2.
L1 used in translation of dialogues. As course proceeds, L1 reduced. In-class performance.
No overt correction Modelled correctly. Georgi Lozanov
Communicative competence. Facilitate acquisition by providing comprehensible input (i+1). Director. T provides T as facilitator. Primary model of L2 for responsibility is with S. imitation. Later role reversal.
Counselor/client. As S assumes more responsibility, becomes independent of T. Security, aggression, Comprehension attention, reflection, before production. retention, Modelling by T discrimination. Ss followed by initiate speech in L1, performance. T supplies L2. Changes over time. Importance placed on cooperative relationship between T/S and S/S. S viewed as whole person, no separation of intellect and feelings. T "understands” Ss.
Used to form sounds in L2 and for feedback. Otherwise not used. Continuous observation. Ss develop their own criteria. Selfcorrection; peer correction. Caleb Gattegno
Comprehension before production. Developing model approximates L2 (L1, . . . L2). Gradual emergence of speech. Task oriented.
T speaks, Ss respond nonverbally. Later, Ss verbalize.
S-centered. Both initiate interaction. S/S interaction in pair and small group activities.
Ss have fun in a nonstressful situation.
Affective factors over cognitive factors. Optimal learner has low affective filter.
Communicative Language Teaching Communication in social context. Appropriacy. Functional competence.
Facilitator. Manager of learning activities. Promotes communication among Ss. Ss learn to communicate by negotiating meaning in real context. Activities include information gap, choice, feedback. T arranges tasks for communication. S/S interaction.
Ss are motivated to learn thru usefulness of language functions.
Language for developing critical thinking. Culture integrated with language. 7. What skills Ss determine syllabus are emphasized? by what they what to say. 6. View of language/ culture?
8. Role of L1?
Used in the beginning, less in later stages.
9. How does evaluation occur?
Integrative tests. Self-evaluation.
10. Treatment of Nonthreatening. Correction by errors? modelling. 11. Associated with whom?
Spoken over written.
Language as a tool for Language in social communication. context, for Language function over communication. linguistic form.
Grammar and Vocabulary over vocabulary (initially grammar. Function over via imperatives). form. Comprehension–e Comprehension earlyproduction–s precedes speech emergence. production. Not used. L1 can be used in preproduction (comprehension) activities. By observation. Communicative effectiveness. Fluency over accuracy. Task oriented. Unobtrusive No error correction correction. unless errors interfere with communication. James Asher
Tracy Terrell, Stephen Krashen
Function over form. Discourse and sociolinguistic competence + all 4 skills. Generally not used.
Communicative tests. Fluency and accuracy.
No error correction unless errors interfere with communication. Various.