Which of the following is least likely to be an effect of global warming? A.
I nc r eas edf r equenc yo fhur r i c anes Los soff er t i l edel t ar egi onsf oragr i c ul t ur e C. De c r eas edr a t eofpho t os y nt hes i si nvege t at i on D. Ch angei ngl obal pat t er nsofpr ec i pi t at i on E. Shr i nk i ngoft hepol ari c er egi ons 2. Of the following substances which has the greatest permeability? B.
A. Loam ( Lo am i ss oi l c omp os edofs and,s i l t ,andc l a yi nr el at i v el yev enc onc ent r a t i on s) B. C. D.
Cl a y Si l t
Sand E. Humus 3. Most of the Earth's deserts are at approximately 30 deg latitude! north " south because these locations are characteri#ed by$ A. Ge ne r a l l ywa r mo c ea nc u r r e nt s B. Des c endi ngdr yai rc ur r ent s C. Sl o wmo v i n gj e ts t r e ams D. En ha nc edSo l a rr a di a t i o n E. Pr e do mi mi n an t l yl o wa t mo sp he r i cp r e ss ur e remediation? (Generally, remediation remediation means providing 4. Which of the following is the best example of en%ironmental remediation?(Generally, a remedy, so environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the general protection of human health and the environment or from a brownfield site intended for redevelopment. Remediation is generally subject to an array of regulatory requirements, and also can be based on assessments of human health and ecological risks where no legislated standards exist or where standards are advisory. advisory. A. As pec i esoft r outbec omesex t i nc ti na* e ut r o phi cl ak e B.T h ea nn ua lv o l u meofs me e wa geﬂ owi n gi n t oas t r e am i sd ec r e as e db y50 % C. T h eh ei g hto faf a ct o r ys mo mo k es t ac ki si n cr e as ed D. Ap ar c el off o r e s tl andi sde cl ar e daSt at ePar k E. PCBc o ns u mi mi n gb ac t e r i aar es pr a y e do na na r e at h ath ass o i l c o nt a mi mi n at e dwi t hPCBs &he presence of which contaminants would be the strongest indicator that municipal sewage sludge is unfit for 5. use as fertili#er? A. Huma manf eces B. Amm mmon i a C. Phosphat es D. Heavyme met al s E. Ni t r at es 6. easons that the population of an exotic species often increases rapidly when introduced to a new en%ironment! is due which of the following$( &he exotic species is resistant resistant to pesticides(( &here is usually a large! underused food source in the new en%ironment((( &he exotic species has few natural predators in the new en%ironment A. Ionl y B. I Ionl y C. IandI I Ionl y D. I IandI I Ionl y E. I ,I Ia ndI I I country's current population is *00 million million with an annual growth growth rate of 3+, (f the growth rate rate remains 7. ) country's constant! what will be the population in -0 years? A. 150mi l l i on B. 200mi l l i on C. 300mi l l i on D. 400mi l l i on E. 800mi l l i on Which type of electricity.generating power plant releases radioacti%e as well as toxic materials such as lead and 8.
arsenic under normal operating conditions? Nucl ear
Hy dr oel ec t r i c
So l a r
Coal b ur ni ng Geot her mal Which of the following greenhouse gasses has the greatest heat.trapping ability per molecule?
A. B. C. D. E.
10. A. B. C. D. E.
Ch l o r o ﬂ uo r o c ar b on Met hane Ca r b o ndi o x i d e Ni t r ousox i de Car bonmonoxi de Of the following! which poses the greatest threat to populations of migratory /orth )merican songbirds?
Cl ear i ngoft r opi c al f or es t s Pr ed at i onb yr apt or s Spor thunt i ng Di s ea sef r o mp ol l u t e dwa t e r s I nt er nat i onal t r adei npet s
greenhouse efect is caused by…
a) Greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere absorbing solar radiation b) Greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere absorbing radiation rom the Earth's surace, and preventing much o it escaping into space c) Too much heat in the atmosphere d) Too much sunshine reaching Earth 2. Which
o these natural events afect the climate
a) Thawing permarost b) The path o the Earth around the sun c) !olcanic eruptions d) "ll o the above 3. Which o these greenhouse gases is most abundant in the
atmosphere a) #arbon dio$ide b) %ethane c) &itrous o$ide d) Water vapour 4. What greenhouse gas was not present in the atmosphere in preindustrial times (beore *+) a) Trichloro-uoromethane b) #arbon dio$ide c) &itrous o$ide d) %ethane5. Which o the ollowing changes in climate has &.T already occurred a) /*01# increase in average global temperature over the last century b) /*m rise in sea level during the 2th century c) " decrease in the sea ice around "ntarctica d) 3ewer cold days and rosts, and more re4uent heatwaves over the last + years6. Which o these countries has the highest per capita carbon dio$ide emissions a) 5nited 6tates b) "ustralia c) 6audi "rabia
d) #hina7. Which o the ollowing activities contributes the most to carbon emissions globally a) "griculture b) Transport c) 3orestry d) Energy supply 8. 7n research published in
claim we have a
good chance o stabilising global warming below 21# i the world's total carbon dio$ide emissions rom 2 to 2+ don't e$ceed , billion tonnes/ 8ow much carbon dio$ide did we emit between 2 and 29 a) billion tonnes b) 2:0 billion tonnes c) 09 billion tonnes d) ;0 billion tonnes 9. "ustralia emitted +;* million tonnes o greenhouse gas in 2*/ We could cut up to million tonnes of our annual emissions by… a) 7nstalling energy elanting one million trees 10. Which o the ollowing is &.T e$pected to happen in "ustralia as a result o global warming a) #entral "ustralia will become drier and have more re4uent and severe droughts
b) >erth will have between 2; to :? days above :+1# a year by 2: c) #anberra will have between 29 and 2; days o e$treme @re danger by 22 d) Tasmania will become a tropical island
1. The greenhouse effect is caused by… a 1reenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere absorbing solar radiation b 1reenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere absorbing radiation from the Earth's surface! and pre%enting much of it escaping into space c &oo much heat in the atmosphere d &oo much sunshine reaching Earth Anser! " #reenhouse gases in the $oer at%os&here absorbing radiation fro% the 'arth(s surface) and &re*enting %uch of it esca&ing into s&ace &he greenhouse effect simply describes the fundamental role our atmosphere plays in sustaining life on Earth Energy from the sun in the form of sunlight passes through our atmosphere and warms the surface of the Earth which then emits the energy back into the atmosphere in the form of infrared radiation 1reenhouse gases! which make up only about one per cent of the atmosphere! absorb and re.emit some of this heat! pre%enting much of it lea%ing the Earth's atmosphere &his keeps the blue planet at a comfy temperature to sustain life 2ut o%er time! climate scientists argue! our atmosphere has accumulated more greenhouse gases! in particular carbon dioxide! methane! nitrous oxide and fluorocarbons &his increased concentration of atmospheric gases traps more heat close to the Earth's surface in the lower atmosphere and increases the a%erage global temperature &his process! called the 'enhanced greenhouse effect'! is fundamental to global warming &he (44 assesses with %ery high confidence that the globally a%eraged net effect of human acti%ities since *5+0 has been one of warming 4omputer climate models estimate that the a%erage global temperature will rise by a further *674 to -074 by the year 8*00 2. +hich of these natura$ e*ents affect the c$i%ate, a &hawing permafrost b &he path of the Earth around the sun c 9olcanic eruptions d )ll of the abo%e Anser! - A$$ of the abo*e eat bogs play an important role in maintaining climate ermafrost in the /orthern :emisphere is an important carbon sink but when it thaws exposing peat bogs! captured carbon and methane is released into the atmosphere &he greenhouse gases released from peat bogs can amplify climate change 4hanges in the Earth's orbit around the sun can also affect the climate &hese changes! as well as changes in the tilt of the Earth on its axis! are part of what are known as Milanko%itch cycles! which are linked to the timing of ice ages
9olcanic eruptions ha%e been known to greatly affect global temperatures in the past ; the *6*+ eruption of &ambora caused '&he year without a summer' in *6*< ; ash! rock and sulphur particles in the atmosphere increased cloud co%er and reflecti%ity =albedo! causing widespread global cooling 3. +hich of these greenhouse gases is %ost abundant in the at%os&here, a 4arbon dioxide b Methane c /itrous oxide d Water %apour Anser! - +ater *a&our Water %apour is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere )s the Earth's atmosphere warms! water e%aporates faster from oceans and ground sources! which in turn heats up the atmosphere further and continues the cycle 4arbon dioxide =4O8 is the next most abundant gas! followed by methane and nitrous oxide >o if it's not the most abundant gas! why are climate change scientists so concerned about carbon dioxide? While methane actually has a much stronger warming effect than 4O8! carbon dioxide is responsible for o%er <0 per cent of the enhanced greenhouse effect (t can also stay in the atmosphere a lot longer than methane! with a lifetime of fi%e to 800 years as opposed to methane's *8 years 2urning of fossil fuels is releasing carbon into the atmosphere at a faster rate than it can be absorbed 4urrently! atmospheric le%els of carbon dioxide are rising by o%er *0 per cent e%ery 80 years 4. +hat greenhouse gas as not &resent in the at%os&here in &reindustria$ ti%es /before 1750, a &richlorofluoromethane b 4arbon dioxide c /itrous oxide d Methane Anser! A Trich$orof$uoro%ethane &richlorofluoromethane is a type of fluorocarbon luorocarbons were not present in the atmosphere before *5+0 &oday trichlorofluoromethane is present in the atmosphere at 8-8 to 8-- parts per trillion =ppt >ince the industrial re%olution concentrations of pre.existing greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide! methane and nitrous oxide ha%e also risen significantly or example! in *5+0! the a%erage concentration of carbon dioxide was 860 parts per million =ppm! in 8006 it was 36-6 ppm 5. +hich of the fo$$oing changes in c$i%ate has T a$ready occurred, a 05-74 increase in a%erage global temperature o%er the last century b 0*5m rise in sea le%el during the 80th century c ) decrease in the sea ice around )ntarctica d ewer cold days and frosts! and more fre@uent heatwa%es o%er the last +0 years Anser! A decrease in the sea ice around Antarctica While the )rctic has experienced sea ice losses! expected decreases of sea ice around )ntarctica ha%e not occurred >cientists belie%e this is primarily due to changes in winds linked to global warming and stratospheric o#one depletion &he increases in temperature! sea le%el and heatwa%e fre@uency ha%e already been obser%ed urther increases in these markers are proAected! and in most cases the extent of the increase depends on the concentration of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere
6. +hich of these countries has the highest &er ca&ita carbon dioide e%issions, a Bnited >tates b )ustralia c >audi )rabia d 4hina Anser! " Austra$ia &he bulk of greenhouse gas emissions arise from the countries at the centre of global economic acti%ity )s political entities! the largest emitters are 4hina! the Bnited >tates and the European Bnion! which between them are responsible for more than -0 per cent of global emissions 2ut on a per capita basis! )ustralians lead the world when it comes to carbon dioxide emissions from acti%ities excluding land use or forestry =forestry.related emissions are subAect to large uncertainties in many of the main emitting countries! according to the 1arnaut 4limate 4hange e%iew Each year! e%ery )ustralian emits 8< tonnes of carbon dioxide er capita! )mericans emit 8-+ tonnes! 4anadians emit 8- tonnes! >audi )rabians emit *<+ tonnes and the 4hinese emit + tonnes 7. +hich of the fo$$oing acti*ities contributes the %ost to carbon e%issions g$oba$$y, a )griculture b &ransport c orestry d Energy supply Anser! - 'nergy su&&$y )ccording to the (44 energy supply contributes o%er a @uarter =8+C, of carbon emissions followed by industry =*C-,! forestry =*5- ,! agriculture =*3+,! transport =*3*,! residential and commercial buildings =5C,! waste and wastewater =86, 8. n research &ub$ished in Naturescientists c$ai% e ha*e a good chance of stabi$ising g$oba$ ar%ing be$o 2 if the or$d(s tota$ carbon dioide e%issions fro% 2000 to 2050 don(t eceed 1)000 bi$$ion tonnes. o %uch carbon dioide did e e%it beteen 2000 and 2006, a *!000 billion tonnes b 83- billion tonnes c *-< billion tonnes d C- billion tonnes Anser! " 234 bi$$ion tonnes 1lobally we added 83- billion tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere between 8000 and 800< (n other words! we'%e already emitted close to one @uarter of our fifty year 'allocation' in less than a decade (f carbon dioxide emissions remain at this high le%el! we'll ha%e exceeded the sub 874 target before 8030 9. Austra$ia e%itted 597 %i$$ion tonnes of greenhouse gas in 2007. +e cou$d cut u& to 110 %i$$ion tonnes off our annua$ e%issions by… a (nstalling energy efficient lightbulbs in e%ery home b 1reater energy efficiency in industry and more energy efficient buildings c ecycling all recyclable waste at home and in industry d lanting one million trees Anser! " #reater energy efficiency in industry and %ore energy efficient bui$dings. )ccording to a 8003 study for >ustainable Energy )uthority 9ictoria! more energy efficient electric motors could cut <0 million tonnes of greenhouse emissions from industry each year! and more energy efficient buildings could sa%e a further +0 million tonnes annually
&he other three acti%ities could only sa%e a fraction of this amount Energy efficient lighting in e%ery home would sa%e approximately *0 million tonnes Waste to landfill accounts for approximately ** million tonnes per year! so recycling e%erything possible could ne%er cut emissions by more than that amount )nd with a sa%ing of one tonne of 4O8 for e%ery four trees planted =and maintained! one million trees can only se@uester 08+ million tonnes of 4O8 10. +hich of the fo$$oing is T e&ected to ha&&en in Austra$ia as a resu$t of g$oba$ ar%ing, a 4entral )ustralia will become drier and ha%e more fre@uent and se%ere droughts b erth will ha%e between 8C to 36 days abo%e 3+74 a year by 8030 c 4anberra will ha%e between 8< and 8C days of extreme fire danger by 8080 d &asmania will become a tropical island Anser! - Tas%ania i$$ beco%e a tro&ica$ is$and )ccording to the federal Department of 4limate 4hange's climate change impacts by region data! &asmania will get warmer days and less cold nights as a result of climate change 2ut don't go planning your tropical &asmanian getaway Aust yet ; the a%erage number of days abo%e 3+74 in :obart is likely to increase from one a year to two