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Physics Moment of a force: Moment of a force = force x perpendicular distance of the line if action if the force from fulcrum
Law of moments: When a body is in equilibrium the sum of the clockwise moments about any point equals the sum of the anticlockwise moments about the same point.
Centre of mass: I.
Centre of mass is the point where whole mass of the body assumes to be concentrated. II. If the vertical line through the centre of mass is outside the base it will be a topples but if it’s passed through the base it will be stable.
The stability of the body is increased by: 1. Lowering its centre of mass. 2. Increasing the area of the base.
Energy measurement: Work is set to be done when a force is applied at an object and the object is moved in the direction of the force.
Kinetic energy: All moving objects have kinetic energy. (
Potential energy: The energy due to change in position, shape, or state.
Power: It’s the rate at which it transfers energy from one form to another.
Uniform acceleration Vsecond speed Ufirst speed
The heat equation
Specific heat capacity: The specific heat capacity of a substance is the heat required to produce a rise in 1 Kg
Specific heat capacity of water (
( ) ( )
Thermal capacity: It’s the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of the whole body by .
Specific latent heat of fusion: The specific latent heat of fusion of a substance is the quantity of heat needed to change unit mass from solid to liquid without temperature change.
Specific latent heat of fusion
Specific latent heat of vaporization: The specific latent heat of vaporization of a substance is the quantity of heat needed to change unit mass from liquid to vapor without change of temperature.
Specific latent heat of vaporization
Heat supplied by a heater:
Speed of wave
The Ampere and the Coulomb The unit of current is the Ampere (A) which is defined using the magnetic effect. The unit of charge, the Coulomb (C) The Coulomb is the charge passing any point in a circuit when a steady current of 1 ampere flows for 1 second, ( )
Series and parallel circuit The current is the same at all points in a series circuit The current is different in the branches of a parallel circuit Direct and alternating current In a Direct current (d.c) the electrons flow in one direction only. In an Alternating current (a.c) the direction of flow reverses regularly. Voltages round a circuit In series: The voltages at the terminals of a battery equal the sum of the voltages across the devices in the external circuit from one battery terminal to the other. In parallel: the voltages across devices in parallel in a circuit are equals.
Resistance The opposition if a conductor to a current is called its resistance. The resistance of a wire of a certain material: i) Increases as its length increases ii) Increases as its cross-section area decreases iii) Depends on the material The Ohm The ohm is the resistance of a conductor in which the current is 1 ampere when a voltage of 1 volt is applied across it.
Resistors in series: . Also, if R is the combined resistance, and so Dividing both sides by I, Resistors in parallel Also, if R is the combined resistance, and so Dividing both sides by V,
For simpler case of two resistors in parallel
Inverting both sides,
Capacitor It stores electric charge and is useful in many electronic circuits. Effects of capacitors in d.c and a.c circuits The capacitor block d.c The capacitor passes a.c Electric power
Electronic system Any electronic system consists of three parts: i)
An input sensor or transducer ii) A processor
An output transducer
A transducer is a device to convert a non-electrical input into an electrical signal or vice versa. The processor decides on what action to take on the electrical signal receives from the input sensor; The output transducer converts the electrical energy supplied by the processor into another form. Light dependent resistor (LDR) It’s a type if variable resistor where resistance depends in the amount of light falling on it. It is used in circuits to detect the level of light Dark
Thermistor It’s a type of variable resistor where resistance depends on the temperature. Cold
less current more current
Relays It’s a type of switch that works using an electromagnet.
Diode It’s a component that allows the electric current to flow in one direction only. It’s also known as Rectifier. It changes alternative current to direct current.
Magnetization of iron and steel Magnetic materials like IRON which magnetize easily but readily lose their magnetism (are easily demagnetized) are said to be SOFT. But those like STEEL which are harder to magnetize than iron but stay magnetized are HARD.
Simple d.c electric motor A direct current (DC) motor is a fairly simple electric motor that uses electricity and a magnetic field to produce torque, which turns the motor. Parts of the Motor DC power supply of some sort Armature or rotor Commutator Brushes
Lenz’s law An induced current is always in such a direction as to oppose the motion or change causing it
Sensitivity of a thermometer
It is the length of increase of the liquid per degree rise in temperature. More sensitive means more noticeable expansion. Linear scale When the fixed points of the thermometer have been marked, the distance between them is divided into equal degrees which are the range of the thermometer. Range of thermometer The temperature limits of the thermometer. The lower limit and the upper limit. Linear expansivity The expansion can be calculated if: i) The length of the bridge, ii) The range of temperature it will experience, and iii) The linear expansivity of the material to be used, Are all known
Weight The weight of a body is the force of gravity on it.
Mass Mass is the amount of matter in an object and is measured in Kg.
Hooke’s law: Within elastic limit, the force is directly proportional to the extension produced.
Plastic If a force is applied to an abject, the object changes its shape, and it stays the same shape when the force if removed.
Elastic If you put a force on an object making the object change shape and it returns to its original shape after removing the force. We say the object is Elastic.
Conditions of equilibrium: I.
The sum of the forced in one direction equals the sum of the forces in the opposite direction II. The law of moments must apply.
Stable equilibrium The body is in stable equilibrium when it slightly displaced and then released, it returns to its previous position.
Unstable equilibrium A body is in unstable equilibrium if moves farther away from its previous position when slightly displaced and then released.
Neutral equilibrium A body is in neutral equilibrium if it stays in its new position when displayed.
The gas laws Boyle’s law: The pressure of fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume if its temperature is kept constant.
Charles’ law: The volume of a fixed mass of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature if the pressure is kept constant.
Pressure law: The pressure of a fixed mass of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature if the volume is kept constant.